Zhongbei Tian

Zhongbei  Tian

University of Liverpool

H-index: 19

Europe-United Kingdom

About Zhongbei Tian

Zhongbei Tian, With an exceptional h-index of 19 and a recent h-index of 18 (since 2020), a distinguished researcher at University of Liverpool, specializes in the field of Railway Power Systems, Transportation Electrification, Smart Grid, Renewable Energy Integration.

His recent articles reflect a diverse array of research interests and contributions to the field:

Bi-level Optimization of Sizing and Control Strategy of Hybrid Energy Storage System in Urban Rail Transit Considering Substation Operation Stability

Adaptive energy management strategy for high-speed railway hybrid energy storage system based on double-layer fuzzy logic control

An improved energy‐efficient driving strategy for routes with various gradients and speed limits

Prediction of the optimal hybrid train trajectory by using artificial neural network models

Development of a smart hybrid drive system with advanced logistics for railway applications

Energy-Efficient Train Control with Onboard Energy Storage Systems considering Stochastic Regenerative Braking Energy

Canceling Onboard Braking Resistance and Optimal Design of Energy Feedback Systems in Urban Rail

Bi-hierarchy capacity programming of co-phase TPSS with PV and HESS for minimum life cycle cost

Zhongbei Tian Information

University

University of Liverpool

Position

Lecturer

Citations(all)

1118

Citations(since 2020)

1005

Cited By

368

hIndex(all)

19

hIndex(since 2020)

18

i10Index(all)

31

i10Index(since 2020)

29

Email

University Profile Page

University of Liverpool

Zhongbei Tian Skills & Research Interests

Railway Power Systems

Transportation Electrification

Smart Grid

Renewable Energy Integration

Top articles of Zhongbei Tian

Bi-level Optimization of Sizing and Control Strategy of Hybrid Energy Storage System in Urban Rail Transit Considering Substation Operation Stability

Authors

Hongzhi Dong,Zhongbei Tian,Joseph W Spencer,David Fletcher,Siavash Hajiabady

Journal

IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification

Published Date

2024/4/8

The hybrid energy storage system (HESS) which consists of battery and ultracapacitor can efficiently reduce the substation energy cost from grid and achieve the peak shaving function, due to its characteristics of high-power density and high-energy density. The sizing of HESS affects the operation cost of whole system. Besides, operation stability (like substation peak power and voltage fluctuations) is rarely considered in urban rail transit (URT) when sizing optimization of HESS is considered. Thus, this research proposes a sizing and control strategy optimization of HESS in URT. First, the mathematic model of URT with HESS is established, which is used to simulate URT and HESS operation state by power flow analysis method. Then, based on the proposed HESS control principle, a bi-level optimization of HESS in URT is proposed. The master level aims to optimize the rated capacity and power of HESS …

Adaptive energy management strategy for high-speed railway hybrid energy storage system based on double-layer fuzzy logic control

Authors

Jiaming Luo,Shibin Gao,Xiaoguang Wei,Zhongbei Tian

Journal

International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems

Published Date

2024/2/1

In order to extend the service life of the high-speed railway hybrid energy storage system and reduce the power shock impact of the traction network, an energy management strategy based on double-layer fuzzy logic control is proposed. This strategy can dynamically adjust the discharge threshold according to the external power and the remaining life of the energy storage system, and dynamically allocate power according to the real-time state of charge. At the same time, the strategy uses the rain flow counting method to complete the extraction of the depth of discharge and establishes an equivalent life evaluation model. The simulation results show that this energy management strategy can effectively reduce the frequency and depth of charging and discharging, and reduce the load impact of the traction network. Compared with the threshold-based energy management strategy, the life loss of this method can be …

An improved energy‐efficient driving strategy for routes with various gradients and speed limits

Authors

Xiao Liu,Zhongbei Tian,Lin Jiang,Shaofeng Lu,Pingliang Zeng

Journal

IET Intelligent Transport Systems

Published Date

2024/1/19

With the increasing concerns about railway energy efficiency, two typical driving strategies have been used in actual train operation. One includes a sequence of full power traction, cruising, coasting, and full braking (CC). The other uses coasting–remotoring (CR) to replace cruising in CC. However, energy‐saving performance by CC and CR, which can be affected by route parameters of gradients and speed limits, has not been fully compared and studied. This paper analyses the energy distribution of CC and CR considering various route parameters and proposes an improved strategy for different gradients and speed limits. The detailed energy flow of CC and CR is analysed by Cauchy–Bunyakovsky–Schwarz inequality and the generalised Hölder's inequality, and then, a novel driving strategy CC_CR is designed. To verify the theoretical results and the effectiveness of the proposed strategy, three simulators …

Prediction of the optimal hybrid train trajectory by using artificial neural network models

Authors

Tajud Din,Zhongbei Tian,Syed Muhammad Ali Mansur Bukhari,Misbahud Din,Stuart Hillmansen,Clive Roberts

Journal

IET Intelligent Transport Systems

Published Date

2024/1/2

This paper presents the development and validation of two artificial neural networks (ANN) models, utilising time and power‐based architectures, to accurately predict key parameters of a hydrogen hybrid train profile and its optimal trajectory. The research employs a hybrid train simulator (HTS) to authenticate the ANN models, which were trained using simulated trajectories from five unique hybrid trains on a designated route. The models’ performance was evaluated by computing the mean square normalisation error and mean absolute performance error, while the output's reliability was confirmed through the HTS. The results indicate that both ANN models proficiently predict a hybrid train's critical parameters and trajectory, with mean errors ranging from 0.19% to 0.21%. However, the cascade‐forward neural network (CFNN) topology in the time‐based architecture surpasses the feed‐forward neural network …

Development of a smart hybrid drive system with advanced logistics for railway applications

Authors

Tamer Kamel,Peter Amor,Nursaid Polater,Yizhe Zhang,Zhongbei Tian,Stuart Hillmansen,Pietro Tricoli

Journal

International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

Published Date

2024/1/2

Fuel Hydrogen cells become nowadays a major candidate to replace the diesel in powering the traction locomotives since they offer low emission of pollutant gases, high efficiency, and flexible modular structure without the need for installation of electrification infrastructure for railway networks. However, they cannot respond appropriately to the fast load transients due to their slow internal electrochemical and thermodynamic responses. Therefore, they shall be integrated with fast dynamics Li-ion battery cells to form a hybrid power source for traction systems. Accordingly, this paper presents a development of a new smart integrated power source of fuel hydrogen and Li-ion battery cells to supply dual three-phase machines for driving the trains in railway networks. The developed control management system is regulating the two power sources according to the train operational modes as well as the battery state of …

Energy-Efficient Train Control with Onboard Energy Storage Systems considering Stochastic Regenerative Braking Energy

Authors

Chaoxian Wu,Shaofeng Lu,Zhongbei Tian,Fei Xue,Lin Jiang

Journal

IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification

Published Date

2024/4/16

With the rapid development of energy storage technology, onboard energy storage systems(OESS) have been applied in modern railway systems to help reduce energy consumption. In addition, regenerative braking energy utilization is becoming increasingly important to avoid energy waste in the railway systems, undermining the sustainability of urban railway transportation. However, the intelligent energy management of the trains equipped with OESSs considering regenerative braking energy utilization is still rare in the field. This paper considers the stochastic characteristics of the regenerative braking power distributed in railway power networks. It concurrently optimizes the train trajectory with OESS and regenerative braking energy utilization. The expected regenerative braking power distribution can be obtained based on the Monte-Carlo simulation of the train timetable. Then, the integrated optimization …

Canceling Onboard Braking Resistance and Optimal Design of Energy Feedback Systems in Urban Rail

Authors

Jian Zhang,Wei Liu,Zhongbei Tian,Qian Xu,Qingan Ma,Ziqiang Pan

Journal

IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification

Published Date

2024/1/1

The onboard braking resistance (OBR) is widely installed on urban rail trains. The general trend is to cancel OBR in urban rail, due to the low efficiency of using regenerative braking energy. The design of Energy feedback systems (EFSs) after canceling OBR is important because EFSs need to balance energy-saving effects and network voltage safety. Besides, the pneumatic braking may increase, so the brake shoe life needs to be further studied. In this paper, the electro-pneumatic braking and braking shoe wear models are first built. Then the power supply calculation algorithm considering OBR is proposed, including the train dynamic model, train brake power distribution rule, and power supply calculation algorithm. Next, the EFS optimal design after canceling OBR is discussed. The comprehensive cost includes the cost of changing braking shoes. A case study denotes that up to 20.5 MWh or 18.5% of the …

Bi-hierarchy capacity programming of co-phase TPSS with PV and HESS for minimum life cycle cost

Authors

Minwu Chen,Xin Gong,Zongyou Liang,Jinyu Zhao,Zhongbei Tian

Journal

International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems

Published Date

2023/5/1

Co-phase traction power supply system (TPSS) with photovoltaic (PV) and hybrid energy storage system (HESS) is a promising way to improve the utilization of regenerative braking energy (RBE) and power quality. However, despite co-phase TPSS with PV and HESS being beneficial from the perspective of technology, how to coordinate the operation strategies of various devices to ensure system economy is a key issue in practical engineering applications. Therefore, this paper proposes a bi-hierarchy capacity programming strategy of co-phase TPSS to minimize life cycle cost. In the upper layer, the integrated lifetime evaluation model of HESS and PFC (HESS-PFC) is proposed for the lower long-term investment cost. Remarkably, the PFC reliability assessment and the HESS degradation process are analyzed. Meanwhile, the capacity of HESS-PFC is obtained, and the lifetime of HESS-PFC is extended. In the …

Energy-Efficient Strategies for Train Operation

Authors

Shuai Su,Rob MP Goverde,Xuekai Wang,Zhongbei Tian

Published Date

2023/7/4

The energy consumption of rail transport system is closely related to the train operation. This chapter will introduce the relationship between train operation and energy consumption under different energy-efficient strategies. This relationship will serve as the basis for the energy-efficient optimisation methods in the subsequent chapters. Specifically, the train-based energy-saving strategy aims to minimise the net energy consumption, for which four methods can be distinguished, including energy-efficient train control, energy-efficient train timetabling, optimisation of train timetables for regenerative braking, and energy-efficient driving considering energy storage systems. Second, the substation-based energy-saving strategy aiming to increase the efficiency of the power supply system is briefly presented.

An advanced cruising-coasting strategy for energy-efficient train driving

Authors

Xiao Liu,Zhongbei Tian,Lin Jiang

Published Date

2023/8/28

As a result of the growing challenge of energy shortage, research on energy-efficient train driving has drawn an increasing amount of attention. However, studies that consider steep downhills as well as various speed limits are still rare. This paper proposes a new energy-efficient train driving strategy while considering steep downhills and diverse speed limits. The identification of steep downhill sections is carried out via a two-step method, while the division of sub-sections is based on predetermined steep downhills as well as speed limits. A set of critical speeds is employed to control the switching points of the driving regimes for the whole journey. Based on this strategy, NSGA-II is introduced to obtain the optimal train trajectory with minimum energy consumption. Case studies on metro and high-speed railway lines are carried out to compare the performance of the proposed strategy with the traditional cruising …

Hybrid railway vehicle trajectory optimisation using a non‐convex function and evolutionary hybrid forecast algorithm

Authors

Tajud Din,Zhongbei Tian,Syed Muhammad Ali Mansur Bukhari,Stuart Hillmansen,Clive Roberts

Journal

IET Intelligent Transport Systems

Published Date

2023/12

This paper introduces a novel optimisation algorithm for hybrid railway vehicles, combining a non‐linear programming solver with the highly efficient “Mayfly Algorithm” to address a non‐convex optimisation problem. The primary objective is to generate efficient trajectories that enable effective power distribution, optimal energy consumption, and economical use of multiple onboard power sources. By reducing unnecessary load stress on power sources during peak time, the algorithm contributes to lower maintenance costs, reduced downtime, and extended operational life of these sources. The algorithm's design considers various operational parameters, such as power demand, regenerative braking, velocity and additional power requirements, enabling it to optimise the energy consumption profile throughout the journey. Its adaptability to the unique characteristics of hybrid railway vehicles allows for efficient …

Renewable sources and energy storage optimization to minimize the global costs of railways

Authors

Nakaret Kano,Zhongbei Tian,Nutthaka Chinomi,Xiaoguang Wei,Stuart Hillmansen

Journal

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology

Published Date

2023/4/10

Climate change is one of the biggest global issues for humanity these days, and its effect has become more severe. The transport sector accounts for around 30% of greenhouse gas emissions, which need to be decarbonized urgently. Railway electrification is one of the low-carbon solutions, but it still relies on power grids causing carbon emissions. To further decarbonize electric railways, the renewable energy sources (RESs) and energy storage system (ESS) integration scheme for railway traction power network has been proposed. This paper developed the energy management system to calculate the energy flow and global cost. Moreover, contact wire loss and conversion loss were considered. The optimization problem to find the optimal capacity and location of the PV farm, wind farm and energy storage system to achieve the lowest global daily costs was solved by the Brute Force Algorithm. The traction …

Energy-Efficient Train Operation: A System Approach for Railway Networks

Authors

Shuai Su,Zhongbei Tian,Rob MP Goverde

Published Date

2023/7/3

This book is closely related to the energy conservation problem of rail transport systems, focusing on reducing the energy consumption of train operation. The system process of train operation is analyzed and the relationship between train operation and energy consumption is introduced. The fundamental theories, modelling and application of technologies for energy-efficient train driving are presented, discussing timely topics such as energy-efficient train control and timetabling, integrated timetabling and regenerative braking, and maximizing regenerated energy usage with energy storage systems. In addition, the modelling and application of a traction power simulation platform is introduced, to calculate the detailed energy flow over a railway network. The book is enriched with a set of practical examples to illustrate the performance of the proposed methods in improving energy efficiency of both urban and long …

Real-Time Energy Storage System Control Strategies for Urban Rail Transit with Renewable Energy

Authors

Hongzhi Dong,Zhongbei Tian,David Fletcher,Nutthaka Chinomi,Joseph W Spencer

Published Date

2023/7/26

The energy storage system (ESS) and renewable energy source (RES) have been applied in some urban rail transit (URT), aiming to reduce energy consumption from the utility grid. However, the SOC of ESS highly affects the performance of ESS in supporting urban rail transit. Thus, this research proposes a real-time control strategy of ESS in urban rail transit with RES, which can dynamically control substations to charge ESS to support the peak shaving function of ESS. The mathematic model of the URT and ESS was established first. Then, the power flow method of URT with ESS and RES is introduced to analyze the energy distribution. Besides, a real-time SOC control strategy is designed to ensure ESS has enough stored energy to shave the peak power of the substation. The case study based on the Merseyrail line shows that the proposed real-time SOC control strategy can remain the SOC of ESS above the …

Chance-constrained energy dispatch of railway smart power systems considering uncertainty of traction load

Authors

Yinyu Chen,Minwu Chen,Z Tian

Published Date

2023/11/15

Railway smart power systems (RSPSs) integrated with power flow controllers (PFC) and energy storage (ES) have shown to effectively manage peaks and valleys in railway traction loads, and improve the utilization of energy. However, concerns over the efficiency operation of RSPSs under uncertainty challenge have been raised. In this paper, a stochastic optimal operation model is established, which sets the minimum daily operation energy cost, the control scheme of PFC and charging/discharging strategy of ES as decision variables, and uncertainty of traction load is treated as a chance-constrained power flow condition. The case study results show that the proposed optimal energy dispatch can release 32% of the operating cost under uncertain conditions.

Regenerative Braking Energy Utilization Analysis in AC/DC Railway Power Supply System with Energy Feedback Systems

Authors

Jian Zhang,Zhongbei Tian,Wei Liu,Lin Jiang,Jiaxin Zeng,He Qi,Yuheng Yang

Journal

IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification

Published Date

2023/3/8

In the power supply system with energy feedback system (EFS)s, the energy from EFS (WF) will flow to rectifiers, which is circulation flow (CF). However, the efficiency of CF between substations has been rarely studied. Besides, the relationship between the train operation and regenerative braking energy (RBE) utilizing efficiency is not clear. In this paper, the energy flow structure of the AC/DC railway power supply system including CF is established. In the double-train system, promoting CF when the trains’ distance is long can be beneficial to power utilization efficiency. Chengdu Metro Line 9 is analyzed as the multi-train system based on the iterative AC/DC power flow algorithm. The key to energy saving includes reducing the energy consumption of on-board resistance and the DC traction network loss. Compared with the catenary and rail system, the fourth-rail system can promote system energy efficiency by 23 …

Energy-Efficient Train Operation: Conclusions and Future Work

Authors

Rob MP Goverde,Shuai Su,Zhongbei Tian

Published Date

2023/7/4

This chapter gives the basic conclusions about energy-efficient train operation covering energy-efficient train driving, energy-efficient train timetabling, regenerative braking, energy storage systems and power supply networks. Future work that will develop energy-efficient train operation further include the interaction of connected driver advisory systems (C-DAS) and automatic train operation (ATO) with railway traffic management systems, cooperative train control in platoons of virtually coupled trains, digital twin technology and particularly its application to power supply systems, and the interaction between the railway network with the electrical power grid and renewable energy generation.

Research on symmetric bipolar MMC-M2Tdc-based flexible railway traction power supply system

Authors

Peiqian Guo,Zhongbei Tian,Zhichang Yuan,Xiao-Yu Zhang,Delaram Sharifi

Journal

IEEE Transactions on Transportation Electrification

Published Date

2023/7/3

The success of the modular multi-level converter (MMC)-based multi-terminal direct current (MTdc) transmission system has been instrumental in advancing the railway traction power supply system (TPSS). Nonetheless, it is beset with issues related to inadequate flexibility and reliability. In this paper, an MMC-based meshed MTdc flexible TPSS (MMC-M 2 Tdc FTPSS) with symmetric bipolar network has been introduced, along with the formulation of its control strategies catering to the specific power supply requisites of electric railway applications and operating conditions. To enhance the flexibility and reliability of normal and single-pole operation mode conditions, a master/slave combined voltage droop coordinated control strategy is proposed. Given the uncertain, frequent, and heavy load-varying features of railways, an advanced droop controller, featuring secondary active power-dc voltage compensation …

Configuration and control strategy of flexible traction power supply system integrated with energy storage and photovoltaic

Authors

Minwu Chen,Xianfeng Dai,Junhong Lai,Yinyu Chen,Stuart Hillmansen,Zhongbei Tian

Journal

International Journal of Electrical Power & Energy Systems

Published Date

2023/11/1

To mitigate voltage unbalance (VU) and eliminate the neutral sections while reducing the energy consumption of railways, a flexible traction power supply system (FTPSS) with the power hub is proposed. Different from conventional schemes, the proposed system provides a friendly interface to realize the on-site access of distributed photovoltaic (PV) generation along the railway line and concentrated integration of energy storage systems. The power flow is centrally managed by the power hub to reduce energy consumption and the proposed three-port VU compensation method is coupled with the power hub to suppress negative sequence current caused by trains. Considering the volatility of PV generation and traction loads, four operation modes including grid-connected, valley filling, VU compensation, and peak clipping mode, are proposed to dynamically regulate the operation of FTPSS. Moreover, a …

Railway Energy Simulation Considering Traction Power Systems

Authors

Zhongbei Tian

Published Date

2023/7/4

The railway traction power network supplies the electricity to electric trains. The traction power network modelling plays a significant role in evaluating the railway system energy flow and validating the energy-efficient train operations. This chapter presents the development of an energy evaluation simulation of electric railway systems. The train movement model and railway power network model are integrated into the simulator. This energy simulator is able to calculate the energy flow of the whole system according to multiple-train driving controls and timetables. Based on the power network model, this chapter analyses the energy consumption of railway systems with regenerating trains, including the energy supplied by substations, used in power transmission networks, consumed by monitoring trains, and regenerated by braking trains. A case study of Beijing Yizhuang Subway Line has been conducted which …

See List of Professors in Zhongbei Tian University(University of Liverpool)

Zhongbei Tian FAQs

What is Zhongbei Tian's h-index at University of Liverpool?

The h-index of Zhongbei Tian has been 18 since 2020 and 19 in total.

What are Zhongbei Tian's top articles?

The articles with the titles of

Bi-level Optimization of Sizing and Control Strategy of Hybrid Energy Storage System in Urban Rail Transit Considering Substation Operation Stability

Adaptive energy management strategy for high-speed railway hybrid energy storage system based on double-layer fuzzy logic control

An improved energy‐efficient driving strategy for routes with various gradients and speed limits

Prediction of the optimal hybrid train trajectory by using artificial neural network models

Development of a smart hybrid drive system with advanced logistics for railway applications

Energy-Efficient Train Control with Onboard Energy Storage Systems considering Stochastic Regenerative Braking Energy

Canceling Onboard Braking Resistance and Optimal Design of Energy Feedback Systems in Urban Rail

Bi-hierarchy capacity programming of co-phase TPSS with PV and HESS for minimum life cycle cost

...

are the top articles of Zhongbei Tian at University of Liverpool.

What are Zhongbei Tian's research interests?

The research interests of Zhongbei Tian are: Railway Power Systems, Transportation Electrification, Smart Grid, Renewable Energy Integration

What is Zhongbei Tian's total number of citations?

Zhongbei Tian has 1,118 citations in total.

What are the co-authors of Zhongbei Tian?

The co-authors of Zhongbei Tian are Yunwei Ryan Li, Lin Jiang, Kang Li, Rob Goverde, Zhigang Liu, Stuart Hillmansen.

    Co-Authors

    H-index: 70
    Yunwei Ryan Li

    Yunwei Ryan Li

    University of Alberta

    H-index: 66
    Lin Jiang

    Lin Jiang

    University of Liverpool

    H-index: 55
    Kang Li

    Kang Li

    University of Leeds

    H-index: 43
    Rob Goverde

    Rob Goverde

    Technische Universiteit Delft

    H-index: 41
    Zhigang Liu

    Zhigang Liu

    Southwest Jiaotong University

    H-index: 31
    Stuart Hillmansen

    Stuart Hillmansen

    University of Birmingham

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