The influence of temperature on the metabolic activity of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 genetic variants in vitro

Xenobiotica

Published On 2023/5/4

1. Temperature is considered to affect the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes; however, no previous studies have compared temperature dependency among cytochrome P450 genetic variants. This study aimed to analyse warfarin 7-hydroxylation by CYP2C9 variants; omeprazole 5-hydroxylation by CYP2C19 variants; and midazolam 1-hydroxylation by CYP3A4 variants at 34 °C, 37 °C, and 40 °C.2. Compared with that seen at 37 °C, the intrinsic clearance rates (Vmax/Km) of CYP2C9.1 and .2 were decreased (76 ∼ 82%), while that of CYP2C9.3 was unchanged at 34 °C. At 40 °C, CYP2C9.1, .2, and .3 exhibited increased (121%), unchanged and decreased (87%) intrinsic clearance rates, respectively. At 34 °C, the clearance rates of CYP2C19.1A and .10 were decreased (71 ∼ 86%), that of CYP2C19.1B was unchanged, and those of CYP2C19.8 and .23 were increased (130 ∼ 134%). At 40 …

Journal

Xenobiotica

Published On

2023/5/4

Volume

53

Issue

5

Page

357-365

Authors

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Position

Professor of Biochemistry

H-Index(all)

175

H-Index(since 2020)

51

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Enzymology

drug metabolism

cytochrome P450

mutagenesis

University Profile Page

Other Articles from authors

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

Identification of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Acanthamoeba: Structural Insights into Sterol 14α-Demethylase as a Key Drug Target

Fat mass obesity-associated protein (FTO) is a DNA/RNA demethylase involved in the epigenetic regulation of various genes and is considered a therapeutic target for obesity, cancer, and neurological disorders. Here, we aimed to design novel FTO-selective inhibitors by merging fragments of previously reported FTO inhibitors. Among the synthesized analogues, compound 11b, which merges key fragments of Hz (3) and MA (4), inhibited FTO selectively over alkylation repair homologue 5 (ALKBH5), another DNA/RNA demethylase. Treatment of acute monocytic leukemia NOMO-1 cells with a prodrug of 11b decreased the viability of acute monocytic leukemia cells, increased the level of the FTO substrate N6-methyladenosine in mRNA, and induced upregulation of MYC and downregulation of RARA, which are FTO target genes. Thus, Hz (3)/MA (4) hybrid analogues represent an entry into a new class of FTO …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Chemical Research in Toxicology

In Vivo and In Vitro Induction of Cytochrome P450 3A4 by Thalidomide in Humanized-Liver Mice and Experimental Human Hepatocyte HepaSH cells

Autoinduction of cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4-mediated metabolism of thalidomide was investigated in humanized-liver mice and human hepatocyte-derived HepaSH cells. The mean plasma ratios of 5-hydroxythalidomide and glutathione adducts to thalidomide were significantly induced (3.5- and 6.0-fold, respectively) by thalidomide treatment daily at 1000 mg/kg for 3 days and measured at 2 h after the fourth administration (on day 4). 5-Hydroxythalidomide was metabolically activated by P450 3A4 in HepaSH cells pretreated with 300 and 1000 μM thalidomide, and 5,6-dihydroxythalidomide was detected. Significant induction of P450 3A4 mRNA expression (4.1-fold) in the livers of thalidomide-treated mice occurred. Thalidomide exerts a variety of actions through multiple mechanisms following bioactivation by induced human P450 3A enzymes.

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Formation of potentially toxic metabolites of drugs in reactions catalyzed by human drug-metabolizing enzymes

Data are presented on the formation of potentially toxic metabolites of drugs that are substrates of human drug metabolizing enzymes. The tabular data lists the formation of potentially toxic/reactive products. The data were obtained from in vitro experiments and showed that the oxidative reactions predominate (with 96% of the total potential toxication reactions). Reductive reactions (e.g., reduction of nitro to amino group and reductive dehalogenation) participate to the extent of 4%. Of the enzymes, cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes catalyzed 72% of the reactions, myeloperoxidase (MPO) 7%, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) 3%, aldehyde oxidase (AOX) 4%, sulfotransferase (SULT) 5%, and a group of minor participating enzymes to the extent of 9%. Within the P450 Superfamily, P450 Subfamily 3A (P450 3A4 and 3A5) participates to the extent of 27% and the Subfamily 2C (P450 2C9 and P450 2C19 …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Proteomics, modeling, and fluorescence assays delineate cytochrome b5 residues involved in binding and stimulation of cytochrome P450 17A1 17, 20-lyase

Cytochrome b5 (b5) is known to stimulate some catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes, although mechanisms still need to be defined. The reactions most strongly enhanced by b5 are the 17,20-lyase reactions of P450 17A1 involved in steroid biosynthesis. We had previously used a fluorescently labeled human b5 variant (Alexa 488-T70C-b5) to characterize human P450 17A1-b5 interactions, but subsequent proteomic analyses indicated that lysines in b5 were also modified with Alexa 488 maleimide in addition to Cys-70, due to disulfide dimerization of the T70C mutant. A series of b5 variants were constructed with Cys replacements for the identified lysine residues and labeled with the dye. Fluorescence attenuation and the function of b5 in the steroid lyase reaction depended on the modified position. Apo-b5 (devoid of heme group) studies revealed the lack of involvement of the b5 heme in …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Angewandte Chemie

Oxygen‐18 Labeling Reveals a Mixed Fe− O Mechanism in the Last Step of Cytochrome P450 51 Sterol 14α‐Demethylation

The 14α‐demethylation step is critical in eukaryotic sterol biosynthesis, catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (P450) Family 51 enzymes, for example, with lanosterol in mammals. This conserved three‐step reaction terminates in a C−C cleavage step that generates formic acid, the nature of which has been controversial. Proposed mechanisms involve roles of P450 Compound 0 (ferric peroxide anion, FeO2−) or Compound I (perferryl oxygen, FeO3+) reacting with either the aldehyde or its hydrate, respectively. Analysis of 18O incorporation into formic acid from 18O2 provides a means of distinguishing the two mechanisms. Human P450 51A1 incorporated 88 % 18O (one atom) into formic acid, consistent with a major but not exclusive FeO2− mechanism. Two P450 51 orthologs from amoeba and yeast showed similar results, while two orthologs from pathogenic trypanosomes showed roughly equal contributions of both …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Ninety-eight semesters of cytochrome P450 enzymes and related topics—What have I taught and learned?

This Reflection article begins with my family background and traces my career through elementary and high school, followed by time at the University of Illinois, Vanderbilt University, the University of Michigan, and then for 98 semesters as a Vanderbilt University faculty member. My research career has dealt with aspects of cytochrome P450 enzymes, and the basic biochemistry has had applications in fields as diverse as drug metabolism, toxicology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacogenetics, biological engineering, and bioremediation. I am grateful for the opportunity to work with the Journal of Biological Chemistry not only as an author but also for 34 years as an Editorial Board Member, Associate Editor, Deputy Editor, and interim Editor-in-Chief. Thanks are extended to my family and my mentors, particularly Profs. Harry Broquist and Minor J. Coon, and the more than 170 people who have trained with me. I have …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

ACS catalysis

Oxygen-18 Labeling Defines a Ferric Peroxide (Compound 0) Mechanism in the Oxidative Deformylation of Aldehydes by Cytochrome P450 2B4

Most cytochrome P450 (P450) oxidations are considered to occur with the active oxidant being a perferryl oxygen (FeO3+, Compound I). However, a ferric peroxide (FeO2̅, Compound 0) mechanism has been proposed, as well, particularly for aldehyde substrates. We investigated three of these systems, the oxidative deformylation of the model substrates citronellal, 2-phenylpropionaldehyde, and 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionaldehyde by rabbit P450 2B4, using 18O labeling. The formic acid product contained one 18O derived from 18O2, which is indicative of a dominant Compound 0 mechanism. The formic acid also contained only one 18O derived from H218O, which ruled out a Compound I mechanism. The possibility of a Baeyer–Villiger reaction was examined by using synthesized possible intermediates, but our data do not support its presence. Overall, these findings unambiguously demonstrate the role of the …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Principles of Xenobiotic Metabolism (Biotransformation)

This chapter provides a general overview of metabolic reactions and their significance. Basic concepts and terminology related to biotransformation, activity, and toxicityToxicity are explained and discussed. Major enzymes involved in oxidationOxidation, reductionReduction, hydrolytic, and conjugationConjugation are covered including enzyme nomenclature, localization, catalytic cycle, coenzymes, relevance of individual enzymes, types of reactions, substrates and metabolites, influence of metabolic reactions on the activity/toxicity of xenobiotics, enzyme inhibition, and relevance if applicable.

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Biological Chemistry

The multistep oxidation of cholesterol to pregnenolone by human cytochrome P450 11A1 is highly processive

Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 11A1 is the classical cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) that removes six carbons of the side chain, the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of all mammalian steroids. The reaction is a 3-step, 6-electron oxidation that proceeds via formation of 22R-hydroxy (OH) and 20R,22R-(OH)2 cholesterol, yielding pregnenolone. We expressed human P450 11A1 in bacteria, purified the enzyme in the absence of nonionic detergents, and assayed pregnenolone formation by HPLC-mass spectrometry of the dansyl hydrazone. The reaction was inhibited by the nonionic detergent Tween 20, and several lipids did not enhance enzymatic activity. The 22R-OH and 20R,22R-(OH)2 cholesterol intermediates were bound to P450 11A1 relatively tightly, as judged by steady-state optical titrations and koff rates. The electron donor adrenodoxin had little effect on binding; the substrate …

2023/11/24

Article Details
Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Processive kinetics in the three-step lanosterol 14α-demethylation reaction catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 51A1

Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) family 51 enzymes catalyze the 14α-demethylation of sterols, leading to critical products used for membranes and the production of steroids, as well as signaling molecules. In mammals, P450 51 catalyzes the 3-step, 6-electron oxidation of lanosterol to form (4β,5α)-4,4-dimethyl-cholestra-8,14,24-trien-3-ol (FF-MAS). P450 51A1 can also use 24,25-dihydrolanosterol (a natural substrate in the Kandutsch-Russell cholesterol pathway). 24,25-Dihydrolanosterol and the corresponding P450 51A1 reaction intermediates, the 14α-alcohol and -aldehyde derivatives of dihydrolanosterol, were synthesized to study the kinetic processivity of the overall 14α-demethylation reaction of human P450 51A1. A combination of steady-state kinetic parameters, steady-state binding constants, dissociation rates of P450-sterol complexes, and kinetic modeling of the time course of oxidation of a P450 …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Nucleic Acids Research

Basis for the discrimination of supercoil handedness during DNA cleavage by human and bacterial type II topoisomerases

To perform double-stranded DNA passage, type II topoisomerases generate a covalent enzyme-cleaved DNA complex (i.e. cleavage complex). Although this complex is a requisite enzyme intermediate, it is also intrinsically dangerous to genomic stability. Consequently, cleavage complexes are the targets for several clinically relevant anticancer and antibacterial drugs. Human topoisomerase IIα and IIβ and bacterial gyrase maintain higher levels of cleavage complexes with negatively supercoiled over positively supercoiled DNA substrates. Conversely, bacterial topoisomerase IV is less able to distinguish DNA supercoil handedness. Despite the importance of supercoil geometry to the activities of type II topoisomerases, the basis for supercoil handedness recognition during DNA cleavage has not been characterized. Based on the results of benchtop and rapid-quench flow kinetics experiments, the forward …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Xenobiotica

The influence of temperature on the metabolic activity of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 genetic variants in vitro

1. Temperature is considered to affect the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes; however, no previous studies have compared temperature dependency among cytochrome P450 genetic variants. This study aimed to analyse warfarin 7-hydroxylation by CYP2C9 variants; omeprazole 5-hydroxylation by CYP2C19 variants; and midazolam 1-hydroxylation by CYP3A4 variants at 34 °C, 37 °C, and 40 °C.2. Compared with that seen at 37 °C, the intrinsic clearance rates (Vmax/Km) of CYP2C9.1 and .2 were decreased (76 ∼ 82%), while that of CYP2C9.3 was unchanged at 34 °C. At 40 °C, CYP2C9.1, .2, and .3 exhibited increased (121%), unchanged and decreased (87%) intrinsic clearance rates, respectively. At 34 °C, the clearance rates of CYP2C19.1A and .10 were decreased (71 ∼ 86%), that of CYP2C19.1B was unchanged, and those of CYP2C19.8 and .23 were increased (130 ∼ 134%). At 40 …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Food and Chemical Toxicology

FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Lemongrass oil, chamomile oils, citronella oil and related flavoring ingredients

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a program for the re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavor ingredients. This publication, eleventh in the series, evaluates the safety of NFCs characterized by primary alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acid, ester and lactone constituents derived from terpenoid biosynthetic pathways and/or lipid metabolism. The scientific-based evaluation procedure published in 2005 and updated in 2018 that relies on a complete constituent characterization of the NFC and organization of the constituents into congeneric groups. The safety of the NFCs is evaluated using the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept in addition to data on estimated intake, metabolism and toxicology of members of the congeneric groups and for the NFC under evaluation. The scope of the safety evaluation …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Food and Chemical Toxicology

FEMA GRAS assessment of derivatives of basil, nutmeg, parsley, tarragon and related allylalkoxybenzene-containing natural flavor complexes

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a program for the re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavoring ingredients in food. In this publication, tenth in the series, NFCs containing a high percentage of at least one naturally occurring allylalkoxybenzene constituent with a suspected concern for genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity are evaluated. In a related paper, ninth in the series, NFCs containing anethole and/or eugenol and relatively low percentages of these allylalkoxybenzenes are evaluated. The Panel applies the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept and evaluates relevant toxicology data on the NFCs and their respective constituent congeneric groups. For NFCs containing allylalkoxybenzene constituent(s), the estimated intake of the constituent is compared to the TTC for compounds with structural …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Identification of Three Human POLH Germline Variants Defective in Complementing the UV-and Cisplatin-Sensitivity of POLH-Deficient Cells

DNA polymerase (pol) η is responsible for error-free translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) opposite ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimers (CTDs) and cisplatin-induced intrastrand guanine crosslinks. POLH deficiency causes one form of the skin cancer-prone disease xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) and cisplatin sensitivity, but the functional impacts of its germline variants remain unclear. We evaluated the functional properties of eight human POLH germline in silico-predicted deleterious missense variants, using biochemical and cell-based assays. In enzymatic assays, utilizing recombinant pol η (residues 1—432) proteins, the C34W, I147N, and R167Q variants showed 4- to 14-fold and 3- to 5-fold decreases in specificity constants (kcat/Km) for dATP insertion opposite the 3’-T and 5′-T of a CTD, respectively, compared to the wild-type, while the other variants displayed 2- to 4-fold increases. A CRISPR/Cas9-mediated POLH knockout increased the sensitivity of human embryonic kidney 293 cells to UV and cisplatin, which was fully reversed by ectopic expression of wild-type pol η, but not by that of an inactive (D115A/E116A) or either of two XPV-pathogenic (R93P and G263V) mutants. Ectopic expression of the C34W, I147N, and R167Q variants, unlike the other variants, did not rescue the UV- and cisplatin-sensitivity in POLH-knockout cells. Our results indicate that the C34W, I147N, and R167Q variants—substantially reduced in TLS activity—failed to rescue the UV- and cisplatin-sensitive phenotype of POLH-deficient cells, which also raises the possibility that such hypoactive germline POLH variants may …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of inorganic biochemistry

Hydroxylation and lyase reactions of steroids catalyzed by mouse cytochrome P450 17A1 (Cyp17a1)

Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) catalyzes 17α-hydroxylation and 17,20-lyase reactions with steroid hormones. Mice contain an orthologous Cyp17a1 enzyme in the genome, and its amino acid sequence has high similarity with human CYP17A1. We purified recombinant mouse Cyp17a1 and characterized its oxidation reactions with progesterone and pregnenolone. The open reading frame of the mouse Cyp17a1 gene was inserted and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified using Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) affinity column chromatography. Purified mouse Cyp17a1 displayed typical Type I binding titration spectral changes upon the addition of progesterone, 17α-OH progesterone, pregnenolone, and 17α-OH pregnenolone, with similar binding affinities to those of human CYP17A1. Catalytic activities for 17α-hydroxylation and 17,20-lyase reactions were studied using ultra-performance …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

The Importance of Biotransformation

Biotransformation is important in considerations of toxicity of chemicals. What begins as a well-defined compound may lead to a mixture of chemicals after it enters the body. The changes may be beneficial or detrimental. A potentially harmful chemical may be rapidly inactivated, at low doses. Conversely, an innocuous compound may be transformed into a toxic one. There are cases of both detoxication and bioactivation for the same chemical, sometimes even with the same enzyme being involved in both changes (e.g., aflatoxin B1 and cytochrome P450 3A4). A proper understanding of the chemical changes, the enzymes involved, and the kinetics of changes is needed to understand the outcomes regarding safety assessment.

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Drug Metabolism and Disposition

Cytochrome P450 enzymes as drug targets in human disease

Although the mention of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) inhibition usually brings to mind unwanted variability in pharmacokinetics, in several cases P450s are good targets for inhibition. These P450s are essential but in certain disease states it is desirable to reduce the concentrations of their products. Most of the attention to date has been with human P450s 5A1, 11A1, 11B1, 11B2, 17A1, 19A1, and 51A1. In some of those cases, there are multiple drugs in us, e.g., exemestane, letrozole, and anastrozole with P450 19A1, the steroid aromatase target in breast cancer. There are also several targets that are less developed, e. g. P450s 2A6, 8B1, 4A11, 24A1, 26A1, and 26B1.Significance Statement The selective inhibition of certain P450s that have major physiological functions has been shown to be very efficacious in certain human diseases. In several cases the search for better drugs continues.

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Steroid 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (cytochrome P450 17A1)

Cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A1 plays a key role in steroidogenesis, in that this enzyme catalyzes the 17α-hydroxylation of both pregnenolone and progesterone, followed by a lyase reaction to cleave the C-20 land C-21 carbons from each steroid. The reactions are important in the production of both glucocorticoids and androgens. The enzyme is critical in humans but is also a drug target in treatment of prostate cancer. Detailed methods are described for the heterologous expression of human P450 17A1 in bacteria, purification of the recombinant enzyme, reconstitution of the enzyme system in the presence of cytochrome b5, and chromatographic procedures for sensitive analyses of reaction products. Historic assay approaches are reviewed. Some information is also provided about outstanding questions in the research field, including catalytic mechanisms and searches for selective inhibitors.

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Direct addition of flavors, including taste and flavor modifiers

The addition of flavorings to food and beverages provides practically unlimited opportunities for innovation, for maintaining and enhancing palatability, and is one essential element of a stable supply of nutritious consumer products. A safety evaluation by the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) Expert Panel provides a pathway for flavor producers and users to achieve regulatory authority to use for substances under the conditions of intended use as a flavoring. This chapter describes the factors that contribute to the safety assessment process that is conducted by the Expert Panel, and provides examples of specific flavorings and types of flavorings that are considered. The chapter also describes future issues and opportunities likely to be encountered within the context of the FEMA generally recognized as safe assessment of flavorings.

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nahla anber

nahla anber

Mansoura University

Xenobiotica

The Effects of Genetic Polymorphism on Toxicity and Pharmacokinetics of Methotrexate in Egyptian Adult Patients with Leukaemia or Lymphoma

1. Polymorphisms in genes coding folate-metabolizing enzymes might alter the pharmacokinetics and sensitivity for methotrexate “MTX”.2. The aim of the study aimed to investigate the influence of MTHFR C677T, DHFR19 Ins/del, GGH -401 C > T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms on MTX toxicity and pharmacokinetics in Egyptian patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).3. Fifty adult Egyptian patients with ALL and NHL, treated with high dose MTX, were prospectively enrolled in the study. Clinical and biochemical data was collected objectively from medical records after each cycle of MTX. Plasma concentrations of MTX were measured after 72 h of initiation of infusion. Genotyping was done with a PCR-ARMS and PCR-RFLP assays.4. The MTHFR C677T T variants significantly increased the risk of leukopenia, whereas the genotype MTHFR 677C > T TT …

Fathalla Belal

Fathalla Belal

Mansoura University

Xenobiotica

The Effects of Genetic Polymorphism on Toxicity and Pharmacokinetics of Methotrexate in Egyptian Adult Patients with Leukaemia or Lymphoma

1. Polymorphisms in genes coding folate-metabolizing enzymes might alter the pharmacokinetics and sensitivity for methotrexate “MTX”.2. The aim of the study aimed to investigate the influence of MTHFR C677T, DHFR19 Ins/del, GGH -401 C > T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms on MTX toxicity and pharmacokinetics in Egyptian patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).3. Fifty adult Egyptian patients with ALL and NHL, treated with high dose MTX, were prospectively enrolled in the study. Clinical and biochemical data was collected objectively from medical records after each cycle of MTX. Plasma concentrations of MTX were measured after 72 h of initiation of infusion. Genotyping was done with a PCR-ARMS and PCR-RFLP assays.4. The MTHFR C677T T variants significantly increased the risk of leukopenia, whereas the genotype MTHFR 677C > T TT …

Ahmed Amin Ali

Ahmed Amin Ali

Kafrelsheikh University

Xenobiotica

The Effects of Genetic Polymorphism on Toxicity and Pharmacokinetics of Methotrexate in Egyptian Adult Patients with Leukaemia or Lymphoma

1. Polymorphisms in genes coding folate-metabolizing enzymes might alter the pharmacokinetics and sensitivity for methotrexate “MTX”.2. The aim of the study aimed to investigate the influence of MTHFR C677T, DHFR19 Ins/del, GGH -401 C > T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms on MTX toxicity and pharmacokinetics in Egyptian patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).3. Fifty adult Egyptian patients with ALL and NHL, treated with high dose MTX, were prospectively enrolled in the study. Clinical and biochemical data was collected objectively from medical records after each cycle of MTX. Plasma concentrations of MTX were measured after 72 h of initiation of infusion. Genotyping was done with a PCR-ARMS and PCR-RFLP assays.4. The MTHFR C677T T variants significantly increased the risk of leukopenia, whereas the genotype MTHFR 677C > T TT …

Yoshinari, Kouichi 吉成浩一

Yoshinari, Kouichi 吉成浩一

Tohoku University

Xenobiotica

Utility of human cytochrome P450 inhibition data in the assessment of drug-induced liver injury

1. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of drug development discontinuation and drug withdrawal from the market, but there are no golden standard methods for DILI risk evaluation. Since we had found the association between DILI and CYP1A1 or CYP1B1 inhibition, we further evaluated the utility of cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibition assay data for DILI risk evaluation using decision tree analysis.2. The inhibitory activity of drugs with DILI concern (DILI drugs) and no DILI concern (no-DILI drugs) against 10 human P450s was assessed using recombinant enzymes and luminescent substrates. The drugs were also subjected to cytotoxicity assays and high-content analysis using HepG2 cells. Molecular descriptors were calculated by alvaDesc.3. Decision tree analysis was performed with the data obtained as variables with or without P450-inhibitory activity to discriminate between DILI drugs and no-DILI …

Ryota Shizu

Ryota Shizu

University of Shizuoka

Xenobiotica

Utility of human cytochrome P450 inhibition data in the assessment of drug-induced liver injury

1. Drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is a major cause of drug development discontinuation and drug withdrawal from the market, but there are no golden standard methods for DILI risk evaluation. Since we had found the association between DILI and CYP1A1 or CYP1B1 inhibition, we further evaluated the utility of cytochrome P450 (P450) inhibition assay data for DILI risk evaluation using decision tree analysis.2. The inhibitory activity of drugs with DILI concern (DILI drugs) and no DILI concern (no-DILI drugs) against 10 human P450s was assessed using recombinant enzymes and luminescent substrates. The drugs were also subjected to cytotoxicity assays and high-content analysis using HepG2 cells. Molecular descriptors were calculated by alvaDesc.3. Decision tree analysis was performed with the data obtained as variables with or without P450-inhibitory activity to discriminate between DILI drugs and no-DILI …

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k abdelkawy

Kafrelsheikh University

Xenobiotica

The Effects of Genetic Polymorphism on Toxicity and Pharmacokinetics of Methotrexate in Egyptian Adult Patients with Leukaemia or Lymphoma

1. Polymorphisms in genes coding folate-metabolizing enzymes might alter the pharmacokinetics and sensitivity for methotrexate “MTX”.2. The aim of the study aimed to investigate the influence of MTHFR C677T, DHFR19 Ins/del, GGH -401 C > T, and MTR A2756G polymorphisms on MTX toxicity and pharmacokinetics in Egyptian patients with Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) or Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL).3. Fifty adult Egyptian patients with ALL and NHL, treated with high dose MTX, were prospectively enrolled in the study. Clinical and biochemical data was collected objectively from medical records after each cycle of MTX. Plasma concentrations of MTX were measured after 72 h of initiation of infusion. Genotyping was done with a PCR-ARMS and PCR-RFLP assays.4. The MTHFR C677T T variants significantly increased the risk of leukopenia, whereas the genotype MTHFR 677C > T TT …

Kathryn Elisa Burns

Kathryn Elisa Burns

University of Auckland

Xenobiotica

CYP-catalysed cycling of clozapine and clozapine-N-oxide promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species in vitro

Clozapine is an effective atypical antipsychotic indicated for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but is under-prescribed due to the risk of severe adverse drug reactions such as myocarditis.A mechanistic understanding of clozapine cardiotoxicity remains elusive.This study aimed to investigate the contribution of selected CYP isoforms to cycling between clozapine and its major circulating metabolites, N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine-N-oxide, with the potential for reactive species production.CYP supersome™-based in vitro techniques were utilised to quantify specific enzyme activity associated with clozapine, clozapine-N-oxide and N-desmethylclozapine metabolism.The formation of reactive species within each incubation were quantified, and known intermediates detected.CYP3A4 predominately catalysed clozapine-N-oxide formation from clozapine and was associated with concentration-dependent reactive …

Kathryn Burns

Kathryn Burns

James Cook University

Xenobiotica

CYP-catalysed cycling of clozapine and clozapine-N-oxide promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species in vitro

Clozapine is an effective atypical antipsychotic indicated for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but is under-prescribed due to the risk of severe adverse drug reactions such as myocarditis.A mechanistic understanding of clozapine cardiotoxicity remains elusive.This study aimed to investigate the contribution of selected CYP isoforms to cycling between clozapine and its major circulating metabolites, N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine-N-oxide, with the potential for reactive species production.CYP supersome™-based in vitro techniques were utilised to quantify specific enzyme activity associated with clozapine, clozapine-N-oxide and N-desmethylclozapine metabolism.The formation of reactive species within each incubation were quantified, and known intermediates detected.CYP3A4 predominately catalysed clozapine-N-oxide formation from clozapine and was associated with concentration-dependent reactive …

Nuala Ann Helsby

Nuala Ann Helsby

University of Auckland

Xenobiotica

CYP-catalysed cycling of clozapine and clozapine-N-oxide promotes the generation of reactive oxygen species in vitro

Clozapine is an effective atypical antipsychotic indicated for treatment-resistant schizophrenia, but is under-prescribed due to the risk of severe adverse drug reactions such as myocarditis.A mechanistic understanding of clozapine cardiotoxicity remains elusive.This study aimed to investigate the contribution of selected CYP isoforms to cycling between clozapine and its major circulating metabolites, N-desmethylclozapine and clozapine-N-oxide, with the potential for reactive species production.CYP supersome™-based in vitro techniques were utilised to quantify specific enzyme activity associated with clozapine, clozapine-N-oxide and N-desmethylclozapine metabolism.The formation of reactive species within each incubation were quantified, and known intermediates detected.CYP3A4 predominately catalysed clozapine-N-oxide formation from clozapine and was associated with concentration-dependent reactive …

Juan Manuel Herrera

Juan Manuel Herrera

Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires

Xenobiotica

EXPLORING PRECISION-CUT LIVER SLICES FOR COMPARATIVE XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM PROFILING IN SWINE AND CATTLE

In vitro systems are useful tools for unravelling species differences in xenobiotic metabolism.The current work aimed to validate the technique of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) for comparative studies on xenobiotic metabolism in swine and cattle.PCLS from swine (n = 3) and cattle (n = 3) were produced using a Brendel-VitronTM Tissue Slicer and cultured for 6 h. Tissue viability was preserved throughout the whole culture period.Metabolic viability was evaluated using the anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ) and fenbendazole (FBZ) as model drugs, as well as other substrates of hepatic monooxygenases: benzydamine (BZ) N-oxygenase (FMO-dependent), and the O-dealkylations of 7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD, CYP1A1-dependent) and 7-methoxyresorufin (MROD, CYP1A2-dependent).ABZ S-oxygenation resulted 5-fold (cattle) and 13-fold (swine) higher (p = 0.001) compared to FBZ S-oxygenation.Similar BZ …

Rosemary Waring

Rosemary Waring

University of Birmingham

Xenobiotica

Academic foreign compound metabolism–‘Quo vadis’?

In the early days of academic foreign compound metabolism, the biologicallyassisted chemical alteration of a compound, it was usually agreed acceptable to identify the structure of metabolites down to 5% or 2% of the given dose if possible. Anything less was regarded as beyond the limits of detection during that time, and any extraction procedures with subsequent concentration may have led to the creation of metabolic artefacts (metabonates; Beckett 1971), a problem still encountered today (Verpoorte et al. 2022). The compounds that were identified were usually then ranked arbitrarily into ‘major’and ‘minor’metabolites. Regulatory authorities have since decreed to industry, in alignment with current opinion, that drug metabolites should be identified and, in some cases, their potential toxicity investigated if they represent 10% or more of the dosed product (FDA 2020; Gross and Wilson 2009; Schadt et al. 2018). In

adrian lifschitz

adrian lifschitz

Universidad Nacional del Centro de la Provincia de Buenos Aires

Xenobiotica

EXPLORING PRECISION-CUT LIVER SLICES FOR COMPARATIVE XENOBIOTIC METABOLISM PROFILING IN SWINE AND CATTLE

In vitro systems are useful tools for unravelling species differences in xenobiotic metabolism.The current work aimed to validate the technique of precision-cut liver slices (PCLS) for comparative studies on xenobiotic metabolism in swine and cattle.PCLS from swine (n = 3) and cattle (n = 3) were produced using a Brendel-VitronTM Tissue Slicer and cultured for 6 h. Tissue viability was preserved throughout the whole culture period.Metabolic viability was evaluated using the anthelmintics albendazole (ABZ) and fenbendazole (FBZ) as model drugs, as well as other substrates of hepatic monooxygenases: benzydamine (BZ) N-oxygenase (FMO-dependent), and the O-dealkylations of 7-ethoxyresorufin (EROD, CYP1A1-dependent) and 7-methoxyresorufin (MROD, CYP1A2-dependent).ABZ S-oxygenation resulted 5-fold (cattle) and 13-fold (swine) higher (p = 0.001) compared to FBZ S-oxygenation.Similar BZ …

k  abdelkawy

k abdelkawy

Kafrelsheikh University

Xenobiotica

Effects of pharmacogenetics on pharmacokinetics and toxicity of doxorubicin in Egyptian breast cancer patients

This study investigates the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms in genes (SLC22A16 and CBR1) involved in the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of doxorubicin (DOX) in Egyptian female patients with breast cancer.Patients administered DOX (60 mg/m2) for 4 cycles every 3 weeks. The peak DOX plasma concentration was measured using a validated chromatographic method. The genotyping for the selected SNPs, SLC22A16 T > C (rs714368), and CBR1 C > T (rs20572), was performed by RT-PCR. Patients were monitored for hematological and cardiac toxicities.The variant carriers of CBR1 C > T (rs20572) exhibited significantly higher DOX concentration, but no significant association to DOX-induced hematological toxicity. On the other hand, SLC22A16 T > C (rs714368) had no significant influence on DOX plasma concentration, but was significantly correlated with lower risk of neutropenia (OR 0 …

Yasuhiro Uno

Yasuhiro Uno

Kagoshima University

Xenobiotica

2-Oxidation, 3-methyl hydroxylation, and 6-hydroxylation of skatole, a contributor to the odour of boar-tainted pork meat, mediated by porcine liver microsomal cytochromes P450 …

The 2-oxidation, 3-methyl hydroxylation, and 6-hydroxylation of skatole (a contributor to boar taint) mediated by minipig liver microsomes and recombinant P450 enzymes expressed in bacterial membranes were investigated.At low substrate concentrations of 10 µM, the formation rates of indole-3-carbinol, 6-hydroxyskatole, and the sum of 3-methyloxindole, indole-3-carbinol, and 6-hydroxyskatole in male minipig liver microsomes were significantly lower than those in female minipig liver microsomes.Compensatory 3-methyloxindole and indole-3-carbinol formation in minipig liver microsomes, which lack 6-hydroxyskatole formation in males, was mediated partly by liver microsomal P450 1A2 and P450 1A2/2E1, respectively. These enzymes were suppressed by typical P450 inhibitors in female minipig liver microsomes.Among the 14 pig P450 forms evaluated, P450 2A19 was the dominant form mediating 3 …

Kamil Piska

Kamil Piska

Uniwersytet Jagiellonski

Xenobiotica

Comparative study on ABCB1-dependent efflux of anthracyclines and their metabolites: consequences for cancer resistance

1. ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, MDR1) is one of the most important transporter involved in cancer multi-drug resistance. It also plays a significant role in cancer resistance against anthracyclines, an anticancer group of drugs, including doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Several intracellular enzymes metabolise anthracyclines to carbonyl-reduced, hydroxy metabolites, which have impaired cytotoxic properties. However, metabolite efflux by ABCB1 transporter is not well characterised, while it may be the mechanism responsible for the metabolites’ lack of activity.2. In this study recombinant ABCB1 ATPase transporter assay; anthracyclines accumulation assay in resistant cells overexpressing ABCB1; and molecular modelling were used to investigate anthracyclines: doxorubicin and daunorubicin and their carbonyl-reduced metabolites (doxorubicinol, daunorubicinol) susceptibility for ABCB1-dependent efflux.3. Based on …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Xenobiotica

The influence of temperature on the metabolic activity of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 genetic variants in vitro

1. Temperature is considered to affect the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes; however, no previous studies have compared temperature dependency among cytochrome P450 genetic variants. This study aimed to analyse warfarin 7-hydroxylation by CYP2C9 variants; omeprazole 5-hydroxylation by CYP2C19 variants; and midazolam 1-hydroxylation by CYP3A4 variants at 34 °C, 37 °C, and 40 °C.2. Compared with that seen at 37 °C, the intrinsic clearance rates (Vmax/Km) of CYP2C9.1 and .2 were decreased (76 ∼ 82%), while that of CYP2C9.3 was unchanged at 34 °C. At 40 °C, CYP2C9.1, .2, and .3 exhibited increased (121%), unchanged and decreased (87%) intrinsic clearance rates, respectively. At 34 °C, the clearance rates of CYP2C19.1A and .10 were decreased (71 ∼ 86%), that of CYP2C19.1B was unchanged, and those of CYP2C19.8 and .23 were increased (130 ∼ 134%). At 40 …

Yasuhiro Uno

Yasuhiro Uno

Kagoshima University

Xenobiotica

Tree shrew cytochrome P450 2E1 is a functional enzyme that metabolises chlorzoxazone and p-nitrophenol

Cytochromes P450 (CYPs or P450s) are important enzymes for drug metabolism. Tree shrews are non-primate animal species used in various fields of biomedical research, including infection (especially hepatitis viruses), depression, and myopia. A recent tree shrew genome analysis indicated that the sequences and the numbers of P450 genes are similar to those of humans; however, P450s have not been adequately identified and analysed in this species.In this study, a novel CYP2E1 was isolated from tree shrew liver and was characterised in comparison with human, dog, and pig CYP2E1. Tree shrew CYP2E1 and human CYP2E1 showed high amino acid sequence identity (83%) and were closely related in a phylogenetic tree.Gene and genome structures of CYP2E1 were generally similar in humans, dogs, pigs, and tree shrews. Tissue expression patterns showed that tree shrew CYP2E1 mRNA was …

William E. Fantegrossi

William E. Fantegrossi

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Xenobiotica

Identification of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Responsible for Oxidative Metabolism of Synthetic Cannabinoid (1-Hexyl-1H-Indol-3-yl)-1-naphthalenyl-methanone …

The purpose of this paper is to characterize the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in the metabolism of a new oral erectogenic, mirodenafil, to a major circulating active metabolite, N-dehydroxyethyl-mirodenafil, and to investigate the inhibitory potential of mirodenafil on seven CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes. CYP3A4 was identified as the major enzyme and CYP2C8 as a minor enzyme responsible for mirodenafil N-dealkylation based on correlation analysis, inhibition studies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzyme activities. Plasma concentrations of mirodenafil and its N-dealkylated metabolite could therefore change with co-administration of known CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors. Mirodenafil inhibited CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 activities with IC50 values of 15.6, 38.2 and 77.0 µM, respectively, in human liver microsomes. However, it is very unlikely that mirodenafil will significantly alter the …

Ryoichi Fujiwara

Ryoichi Fujiwara

University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences

Xenobiotica

Identification of Cytochrome P450 Enzymes Responsible for Oxidative Metabolism of Synthetic Cannabinoid (1-Hexyl-1H-Indol-3-yl)-1-naphthalenyl-methanone …

The purpose of this paper is to characterize the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes involved in the metabolism of a new oral erectogenic, mirodenafil, to a major circulating active metabolite, N-dehydroxyethyl-mirodenafil, and to investigate the inhibitory potential of mirodenafil on seven CYP enzymes in human liver microsomes. CYP3A4 was identified as the major enzyme and CYP2C8 as a minor enzyme responsible for mirodenafil N-dealkylation based on correlation analysis, inhibition studies, and cDNA-expressed CYP enzyme activities. Plasma concentrations of mirodenafil and its N-dealkylated metabolite could therefore change with co-administration of known CYP3A4 inducers or inhibitors. Mirodenafil inhibited CYP3A4, CYP2C19 and CYP2D6 activities with IC50 values of 15.6, 38.2 and 77.0 µM, respectively, in human liver microsomes. However, it is very unlikely that mirodenafil will significantly alter the …

Marcin Kolaczkowski

Marcin Kolaczkowski

Uniwersytet Jagiellonski

Xenobiotica

Comparative study on ABCB1-dependent efflux of anthracyclines and their metabolites: consequences for cancer resistance

1. ABCB1 (P-glycoprotein, MDR1) is one of the most important transporter involved in cancer multi-drug resistance. It also plays a significant role in cancer resistance against anthracyclines, an anticancer group of drugs, including doxorubicin and daunorubicin. Several intracellular enzymes metabolise anthracyclines to carbonyl-reduced, hydroxy metabolites, which have impaired cytotoxic properties. However, metabolite efflux by ABCB1 transporter is not well characterised, while it may be the mechanism responsible for the metabolites’ lack of activity.2. In this study recombinant ABCB1 ATPase transporter assay; anthracyclines accumulation assay in resistant cells overexpressing ABCB1; and molecular modelling were used to investigate anthracyclines: doxorubicin and daunorubicin and their carbonyl-reduced metabolites (doxorubicinol, daunorubicinol) susceptibility for ABCB1-dependent efflux.3. Based on …