State-of-the-art capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry methods for analyzing the polar metabolome

Advanced mass spectrometry-based analytical separation techniques for probing the polar metabolome

Published On 2021/7/13

Coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) to mass spectrometry (MS) provides a powerful approach to profile polar metabolites from biological samples. In particular, the high separation capacity of CE in conjunction with the high specificity of MS allows for hundreds to thousands of electrophoretic peaks to be discriminated by their unique mass-to-charge values. This chapter provides an overview of coupling CE to MS for analyzing polar metabolites, including methods of CE sample injection, common CE–MS interfaces, considerations for selecting an appropriate mass spectrometer, and sample preparation methods. We cover recent studies published in 2013 or later that employ CE–MS to screen for polar metabolites in urine, plasma, serum, cell and tissue extracts. In addition, we cover recent CE–MS methods that analyze minute samples such as single cells, where the limited sample material requires extraordinary …

Journal

Advanced mass spectrometry-based analytical separation techniques for probing the polar metabolome

Published On

2021/7/13

Volume

10

Page

125

Authors

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Position

Department of Chemistry Nanaimo BC Canada

H-Index(all)

13

H-Index(since 2020)

12

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

mass spectrometry

bioanalytical chemistry

electrospray ionization

mass spectrometry imaging

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Other Articles from authors

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Mass spectrometry imaging methods for visualizing tumor heterogeneity

HighlightsCurrent strategies to map lipids, metabolites, and proteins in tumor tissues.Recent biological insights obtained from MSI of tumor samples.Challenges in applying MSI to study tumor biology.Profiling spatial distributions of lipids, metabolites, and proteins in tumors can reveal unique cellular microenvironments and provide molecular evidence for cancer cell dysfunction and proliferation. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a label-free technique that can be used to map biomolecules in tumors in situ. Here, we discuss current progress in applying MSI to uncover molecular heterogeneity in tumors. First, the analytical strategies to profile small molecules and proteins are outlined, and current methods for multimodal imaging to maximize biological information are highlighted. Second, we present and summarize biological insights obtained by MSI of tumor tissue. Finally, we discuss important considerations for …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Advances in Prostaglandin

Advances in Prostaglandin

Prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds called eicosanoids having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from the fatty acid arachidonic acid.Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives. In the present book, twelve typical literatures about prostaglandin published on international authoritative journals were selected to introduce the worldwide newest progress, which contains reviews or original researches on prostaglandin. We hope this book can demonstrate advances in prostaglandin as well as give references to the researchers, students and other related people.

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Strategies for uncovering stable isotope tracing patterns between cell populations

HighlightsChallenges of using isotope tracers within the human tumor microenvironment (TME).Current models and analytics used for isotope tracing in humans.Strategies for uncovering cell-specific isotope tracing within the human TME.Despite practical complexities, isotope tracing studies in humans are becoming increasingly feasible. However, several technological challenges need to be addressed in order to take full advantage of human tracing studies. First, absolute metabolic flux measurements in mice are not so easily applied to human models, given that tissue resection is restricted to a single surgical time point. Second, isotope tracing has yet to be employed to detect metabolic differences between cells types in vivo. Here, we discuss the current models and propose an alternative, liquid tumor environment, that could overcome these limitations. Furthermore, we highlight current strategies used to …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Analytical Chemistry

Ion-to-image, i2i, a mass spectrometry imaging data analysis platform for continuous ionization techniques

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques generate data that reveal spatial distributions of molecules on a surface with high sensitivity and selectivity. However, processing large volumes of mass spectrometry data into useful ion images is not trivial. Furthermore, data from MSI techniques using continuous ionization sources where data are acquired in line scans require different data handling strategies compared to data collected from pulsed ionization sources where data are acquired in grids. In addition, for continuous ionization sources, the pixel dimensions are influenced by the mass spectrometer duty cycle, which, in turn, can be controlled by the automatic gain control (AGC) for each spectrum (pixel). Currently, there is a lack of data-handling software for MSI data generated with continuous ionization sources and AGC. Here, we present ion-to-image (i2i), which is a MATLAB-based application for MSI data …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Analytical Chemistry

A direct infusion probe for rapid metabolomics of low-volume samples

Targeted and nontargeted metabolomics has the potential to evaluate and detect global metabolite changes in biological systems. Direct infusion mass spectrometric analysis enables detection of all ionizable small molecules, thus simultaneously providing information on both metabolites and lipids in chemically complex samples. However, to unravel the heterogeneity of the metabolic status of cells in culture and tissue a low number of cells per sample should be analyzed with high sensitivity, which requires low sample volumes. Here, we present the design and characterization of the direct infusion probe, DIP. The DIP is simple to build and position directly in front of a mass spectrometer for rapid metabolomics of chemically complex biological samples using pneumatically assisted electrospray ionization at 1 μL/min flow rate. The resulting data is acquired in a square wave profile with minimal carryover between …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Environmental Science & Technology

Membrane Sampling Separates Naphthenic Acids from Biogenic Dissolved Organic Matter for Direct Analysis by Mass Spectrometry

Oil sands process waters can release toxic naphthenic acids (NAs) into aquatic environments. Analytical techniques for NAs are challenged by sample complexity and interference from naturally occurring dissolved organic matter (DOM). Herein, we report the use of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer membrane for the on-line separation of NAs from DOM and use direct infusion electrospray ionization mass spectrometry to yield meaningful qualitative and quantitative information with minimal sample cleanup. We compare the composition of membrane-permeable species from natural waters fortified with a commercial NA mixture to those derived from weak anion exchange solid-phase extraction (SPE) using high-resolution mass spectrometry. The results show that SPE retains a wide range of carboxylic acids, including biogenic DOM, while permeation through PDMS was selective for petrogenic classically …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Analytical Chemistry

Host–guest chemistry for simultaneous imaging of endogenous alkali metals and metabolites with mass spectrometry

Sodium and potassium are biological alkali metal ions that are essential for the physiological processes of cells and organisms. In combination with small-molecule metabolite information, disturbances in sodium and potassium tissue distributions can provide a further understanding of the biological processes in diseases. However, methods using mass spectrometry are generally tailored toward either elemental or molecular detection, which limits simultaneous quantitative mass spectrometry imaging of alkali metal ions and molecular ions. Here, we provide a new method by including crown ether molecules in the solvent for nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry imaging (nano-DESI MSI) that combines host–guest chemistry targeting sodium and potassium ions and quantitative imaging of endogenous lipids and metabolites. After evaluation and optimization, the method was applied to an …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Communications Biology

In situ imaging reveals disparity between prostaglandin localization and abundance of prostaglandin synthases

Prostaglandins are important lipids involved in mediating many physiological processes, such as allergic responses, inflammation, and pregnancy. However, technical limitations of in-situ prostaglandin detection in tissue have led researchers to infer prostaglandin tissue distributions from localization of regulatory synthases, such as COX1 and COX2. Herein, we apply a novel mass spectrometry imaging method for direct in situ tissue localization of prostaglandins, and combine it with techniques for protein expression and RNA localization. We report that prostaglandin D2, its precursors, and downstream synthases co-localize with the highest expression of COX1, and not COX2. Further, we study tissue with a conditional deletion of transformation-related protein 53 where pregnancy success is low and confirm that PG levels are altered, although localization is conserved. Our studies reveal that the abundance of …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry

CpG preconditioning reduces accumulation of lysophosphatidylcholine in ischemic brain tissue after middle cerebral artery occlusion

Ischemic stroke is one of the major causes of death and permanent disability in the world. However, the molecular mechanisms surrounding tissue damage are complex and further studies are needed to gain insights necessary for development of treatment. Prophylactic treatment by administration of cytosine-guanine (CpG) oligodeoxynucleotides has been shown to provide neuroprotection against anticipated ischemic injury. CpG binds to Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) causing initialization of an inflammatory response that limits visible ischemic damages upon subsequent stroke. Here, we use nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to characterize molecular effects of CpG preconditioning prior to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and reperfusion. By doping the nano-DESI solvent with appropriate internal standards, we can study and compare …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

Determination of Monounsaturated Fatty Acid Isomers in Biological Systems by Modeling MS3 Product Ion Patterns

Unsaturated free fatty acids are natively present in biological samples as isomers, where double bonds can be situated on different carbons in the acyl chain. While these isomers can have different actions and impacts on biological systems, they are inherently difficult to identify and differentiate by mass spectrometry alone. To address this challenge, several techniques for derivatization of the double bond or metal cationization at the carboxylic group have yielded diagnostic product ions for the respective isomer in tandem mass spectrometry. However, diagnostic product ions do not necessarily reflect quantitative isomeric ratios since fatty acid isomers have different ionization and fragmentation efficiencies. Here, we introduce a simple and rapid approach to predict the quantitative ratio of isomeric monounsaturated fatty acids. Specifically, empirically derived MS3 product ion patterns from fatty acid silver adducts are …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

[Post-print] Direct analysis of naphthenic acids in constructed wetland samples by condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry

The application of direct mass spectrometry techniques to the analysis of complex samples has a number of advantages including reduced sample handling, higher sample throughput, in situ process monitoring, and the potential for adaptation to on-site analysis. We report the application of a semi-permeable capillary hollow fibre membrane probe (immersed directly into an aqueous sample) coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer by a continuously flowing methanol acceptor phase for the rapid analysis of naphthenic acids with unit mass resolution. The intensity of the naphthenic acid-associated peaks in the mass spectrum are normalized to an internal standard in the acceptor phase for quantitation and the relative abundance of the peaks in the mass spectrum are employed to monitor compositional changes in the naphthenic acid mixture using principle component analysis. We demonstrate the direct analysis of a synthetic oil sands process-affected water for classical naphthenic acids (CnH2n+ zO2) as they are attenuated through constructed wetlands containing sedge (Carex aquatilis), cattail (Typha latifolia), or bulrush (Schoenoplectus acutus). Quantitative results for on-line membrane sampling compare favourably to those obtained by solid-phase extraction high-resolution mass spectrometry. Additionally, chemometric analysis of the mass spectra indicates a clear discrimination between naphthenic acid-influenced and natural background waters. Furthermore, the compositional changes within complex naphthenic acid mixtures track closely with the degree of attenuation. Overall, the technique is successful in following changes …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Science of the total environment

Direct analysis of naphthenic acids in constructed wetland samples by condensed phase membrane introduction mass spectrometry

The application of direct mass spectrometry techniques to the analysis of complex samples has a number of advantages including reduced sample handling, higher sample throughput, in situ process monitoring, and the potential for adaptation to on-site analysis. We report the application of a semi-permeable capillary hollow fibre membrane probe (immersed directly into an aqueous sample) coupled to a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer by a continuously flowing methanol acceptor phase for the rapid analysis of naphthenic acids with unit mass resolution. The intensity of the naphthenic acid-associated peaks in the mass spectrum are normalized to an internal standard in the acceptor phase for quantitation and the relative abundance of the peaks in the mass spectrum are employed to monitor compositional changes in the naphthenic acid mixture using principle component analysis. We demonstrate the direct …

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Dr. Ahmed Abdul Hussein Ali Al-Hillawi

Dr. Ahmed Abdul Hussein Ali Al-Hillawi

University of Baghdad

Advanced Mass Spectrometry-based Analytical Separation Techniques for Probing the Polar Metabolome

More with Less: Single-cell Metabolomics by Mass Spectrometry

The cell is the smallest basic functional unit of all life. As such, the study of the cell is essential to understand any biological process of interest. The phenotype and behavior of a cell are a function of the sum of all molecular processes ongoing within it: many different approaches have been developed to study a subclass of cellular molecules, often with the goal of linking the state of those molecules to the cell’s phenotype. Historically, given the technical limitations owing to low cell volume and relatively low number of molecules to be analyzed, cells have been pooled by thousands or millions and analyzed in bulk. While these bulk analyses allow for collection of vast amounts of data on cell

Ahmed Ali

Ahmed Ali

Universiteit Leiden

Advanced Mass Spectrometry-based Analytical Separation Techniques for Probing the Polar Metabolome

More with Less: Single-cell Metabolomics by Mass Spectrometry

The cell is the smallest basic functional unit of all life. As such, the study of the cell is essential to understand any biological process of interest. The phenotype and behavior of a cell are a function of the sum of all molecular processes ongoing within it: many different approaches have been developed to study a subclass of cellular molecules, often with the goal of linking the state of those molecules to the cell’s phenotype. Historically, given the technical limitations owing to low cell volume and relatively low number of molecules to be analyzed, cells have been pooled by thousands or millions and analyzed in bulk. While these bulk analyses allow for collection of vast amounts of data on cell

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Advanced mass spectrometry-based analytical separation techniques for probing the polar metabolome

State-of-the-art capillary electrophoresis mass spectrometry methods for analyzing the polar metabolome

Coupling capillary electrophoresis (CE) to mass spectrometry (MS) provides a powerful approach to profile polar metabolites from biological samples. In particular, the high separation capacity of CE in conjunction with the high specificity of MS allows for hundreds to thousands of electrophoretic peaks to be discriminated by their unique mass-to-charge values. This chapter provides an overview of coupling CE to MS for analyzing polar metabolites, including methods of CE sample injection, common CE–MS interfaces, considerations for selecting an appropriate mass spectrometer, and sample preparation methods. We cover recent studies published in 2013 or later that employ CE–MS to screen for polar metabolites in urine, plasma, serum, cell and tissue extracts. In addition, we cover recent CE–MS methods that analyze minute samples such as single cells, where the limited sample material requires extraordinary …