Review of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control methods of the modular multilevel converter under submodule failure

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

Published On 2023/6/6

Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have attracted extensive research interests in various ac and dc conversion applications due to their modular structure and excellent harmonic performance. However, the large number of power switches increases the potential risk of submodule (SM) failure, which greatly challenges the safe and reliable operation of the MMC. This article presents a detailed review of fault diagnosis and fault-tolerant control methods of the MMC under SM failures. On this basis, comprehensive comparisons are conducted among different fault diagnosis methods, and verification results are provided to analyze the advantages and disadvantages of the popular fault-tolerant control methods. Finally, the review is concluded, and future trends and research opportunities are discussed.

Journal

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

Published On

2023/6/6

Authors

Frede Blaabjerg

Frede Blaabjerg

Aalborg Universitet

Position

Professor in Power Electronics Villum Investigator Denmark

H-Index(all)

197

H-Index(since 2020)

136

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Power Electronics

Renewable Energy

Wind Turbines

Power Systems

Electrical Engineering

University Profile Page

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Position

Professor at

H-Index(all)

104

H-Index(since 2020)

72

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Power Electronics

Smart Batteries

AI

University Profile Page

Josep Pou

Josep Pou

Nanyang Technological University

Position

H-Index(all)

67

H-Index(since 2020)

53

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Power Electronics

Multilevel Converters

Renewable Energy

Energy Storage

University Profile Page

Hongjie Jia

Hongjie Jia

Tianjin University

Position

Professor of Electrical Engineering

H-Index(all)

62

H-Index(since 2020)

52

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Power System

Smart Grid

Integrated Energy Systems

University Profile Page

Yi Tang

Yi Tang

Nanyang Technological University

Position

H-Index(all)

56

H-Index(since 2020)

49

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Power electronics

power quality

renewable energy

micro grid

University Profile Page

Yunfei Mu

Yunfei Mu

Tianjin University

Position

School of Electrical Engineering&Automation

H-Index(all)

39

H-Index(since 2020)

38

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Power system stability and control

New energy application

Electric vehicle

University Profile Page

Qian Xiao

Qian Xiao

Tianjin University

Position

Assitant Professor

H-Index(all)

15

H-Index(since 2020)

15

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Microgrids

DC Distribution Network

Multilevel Converters

BESS

Energy Router

University Profile Page

Yu Jin

Yu Jin

Harbin Institute of Technology

Position

H-Index(all)

10

H-Index(since 2020)

10

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Multilevel converters

Battery energy storage system

FACTs

University Profile Page

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IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

Optimization of Current Dynamic Performance and Torque Harmonic for Induction Motor Field-Weakening Control under Hexagon Voltage Extension

The hexagon voltage extension can increase the maximum output torque of the induction motor in field-weakening region. However, nonlinearity voltage and insufficient voltage margin under hexagon voltage operation can lead to torque harmonics and current dynamic performance degradation, respectively. Focusing on these two problems, this paper has quantitatively analyzed the transient voltage vector and the voltage margin requirements when current changes dynamically. And the relation between the torque harmonic and the fundamental output torque is derived in multiple reference frames. Based on the analysis, both the dynamic problem and the harmonic problem under hexagon voltage extension are attributed to the non-adjustable voltage control issue. To solve both problems simultaneously, this paper proposes the optimization structure for multi-state voltage control. The current, the speed, and the …

Marcelo A. Perez

Marcelo A. Perez

Universidad Técnica Federico Santa María

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

Common-Mode-Voltage Regulation of Modular Multilevel Converters Through Model Predictive Control

Modular multilevel converters (MMCs) have emerged as an attractive converter topology for renewable energy integration systems. A smooth operation of an MMC depends on the proper regulation of multiple control variables, e.g., phase current, circulating current, capacitor voltage, etc. The model predictive control (MPC) is an excellent candidate for such a scenario since different control objectives can be simultaneously handled in a unified cost function. Although extensive research has been conducted in the literature, a computationally efficient MPC implementation capable of regulating the common-mode voltage (CMV) of the ac-side neutral point of an MMC as a control target has not been properly investigated. This article proposes such an MPC strategy that can flexibly regulate the CMV by incorporating the CMV tracking error into the cost function. The biggest challenge is the dramatically increased number …

Ziheng Xiao

Ziheng Xiao

Hunan University

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

A Hybrid Data-driven Power Loss Minimization Method of Dual Active Bridge Converters

Due to the intricate array of control parameters, achieving efficiency optimization for a typical dual active bridge (DAB) prototype becomes a laborious and time-intensive task. Traditional methodologies have revolved around an idealized lossless model of DAB, inevitably leading to a disparity between theoretical ideals and experimental realities. To surmount this challenge, we employ a hybrid data-driven model that seamlessly integrates insights derived from both simulation and experimentation. The disparity between the experimental and simulated models is represented as a residual branch, akin a nonlinear, dissipative impedance. This residual branch contributes to a fraction of power losses and subsequent output voltage/power reduction. The strategic minimization of residual branch emerges as a pivotal step in identifying the optimal control parameters. These optimal control parameters are then subjected to …

Yunwei Ryan Li

Yunwei Ryan Li

University of Alberta

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

Efficiency-Oriented Optimized Design and Control of Hybrid FSBB-CLLC Converters with Partial Power Processing Capability

Combining the highly efficient CLLC topology with the exceedingly flexible Four-Switch Buck-Boost (FSBB) topology, this paper introduces a novel hybrid FSBB-CLLC converter incorporating partial power processing (PPP) capability. This hybrid structure utilizes FSBBs to regulate its output voltage by adjusting its duty cycle, handling a small portion of the total power, and providing a fast dynamic response. Meanwhile, the CLLC in the structure operates in a complete resonant state to ensure high system efficiency. By sharing a bridge arm between the FSBB and the CLLC, where one arm from each system serves a similar function, the number of switches utilized is significantly reduced, resulting in higher system efficiency. In addition to the structural improvements, to achieve a higher average system efficiency under different loads, this paper presents an efficiencybased parameter design methodology. Furthermore …

Dr. Muhammad Azam

Dr. Muhammad Azam

University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

A Single-Switch Trans-Inverse High Step-Up Semi-Quadratic DC-DC Converter Based on Three-Winding Coupled-Inductor

This paper introduces a new non-isolated singleswitch trans-inverse high step-up semi-quadratic DC-DC converter with low input current ripple for renewable energy generation systems. In the presented topology, a three-winding coupled-inductor combined with a quadratic boost converter to achieve high voltage gains. The advanced features of the suggested structure are its ultra-high voltage conversion ratio, low voltage stress ratio across the switching components, low input current ripple, zero current switching (ZCS) of the semiconductors and also common ground between the input and output sides. Due to the trans-inverse feature in the proposed circuit, higher voltage gains can be achieved without needing large turns’ ratios of the coupled inductor in comparison to the other typical quadratic converters which decreases the conduction power loss. Furthermore, in this topology, the maximum voltage stress …

Nianwen Xiang

Nianwen Xiang

Hefei University of Technology

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

An Analytical Carrier Recombination Turn-off Transient Model for High-Voltage IGBTs

High-voltage insulated-gate bipolar transistors (IGBTs) have been extensively used in power electronic systems, such as railway traction inverters, flexible dc transmission systems, and wind turbines, and it is necessary to investigate transient modeling of high-voltage IGBTs. Based on the mechanism of the switching transient, this article proposes a new analytical model for the turn- off process of high-voltage IGBTs. First, considering the large base width of high-voltage IGBTs, the defect of the first-order approximation assumptions used in the existing model is analyzed in detail. Then, by using hyperbolic approximation, an improved solution method is developed for the transient ambipolar diffusion equation that considers the influence of carrier recombination in the base region. Finally, the accuracy of the proposed method is verified by comparing its simulation results with the experiment data obtained under the …

Ruturaj Garnayak

Ruturaj Garnayak

Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

Constant On/Off-Time Digital Current Control and Design Methods in Three-Level Flying-Capacitor Boost Converters for Fast Transient and Voltage Balancing

Constant On/Off-Time Digital Current Control and Design Methods in Three-Level Flying-Capacitor Boost Converters for Fast Transient and Voltage Balancing - NASA/ADS Now on home page ads icon ads Enable full ADS view NASA/ADS Constant On/Off-Time Digital Current Control and Design Methods in Three-Level Flying-Capacitor Boost Converters for Fast Transient and Voltage Balancing Garnayak, Ruturaj ; Kapat, Santanu ; Chakraborty, Chandan Abstract Publication: IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics Pub Date: March 2024 DOI: 10.1109/TPEL.2023.3332100 Bibcode: 2024ITPE...39.2980G full text sources Publisher | © The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A NASA logo Smithsonian logo Resources About ADS ADS Help What's New Careers@ADS …

Dongyuan Qiu

Dongyuan Qiu

South China University of Technology

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

Modeling and Nonlinear Dynamic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System with Multiple Parallel Branches Based on Simplified Discrete Time Model

The widely used DC distribution system mainly based on new energy generation consists of multiple power electronic converters in series and parallel. The mutual coupling among these converters can lead to complex nonlinear behavior. It is necessary to build a more accurate mathematical model for identifying a more comprehensive nonlinear behavior of this kind of high-order complex system. Therefore, a double-branch parallel photovoltaic system is taken as the research object in this paper, and carries out accurate modeling and nonlinear dynamic analysis of the system. Firstly, the influence of environmental factors on the output characteristic of the system is considered when modeling the photovoltaic generator. Secondly, the simplified discrete-time model is introduced in the dynamic model, which not only simplifies the calculation process, but also ensures the accuracy of the calculation results, and is …

Youhua Shi

Youhua Shi

Waseda University

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

A Dual-Output Rectifier-based Self-Powered Interface Circuit for Triboelectric Nanogenerators

Triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) offer a cost-effective solution for harvesting energy in Internet of Things (IoT) devices. However, their practical application is limited due to extremely high output voltage and low intrinsic capacitance, alongside the non-self-powered nature of current interface circuits and low transfer efficiency resulting from output voltage asymmetry. Addressing these issues, this letter introduces a dual-output rectifier (DOR)-based interface circuit, innovatively designed to rectify TENG output into two distinct voltage magnitudes, optimizing for energy harvesting and switching generation. The experimental results validate our approach, showing gains of 2.75 and 2.34 times in terms of maximum output power over a full-wave rectifier (FWR)-based design at 2 Hz and 3 Hz, respectively. Furthermore, under identical frequency and load conditions (1MΩ at 2 and 3Hz), the output gains reached 152 …

Tanuj Sen

Tanuj Sen

Princeton University

IEEE Transactions on Power Electronics

Origami Inductor: Foldable 3-D Polyhedron Multiphase Air-Coupled Inductors with Flux Cancellation and Faster Transient

Traditional air-coupled inductors are usually limited to two phases. This article presents the concept of multiphase 3-D polyhedron air-coupled inductors – termed “origami inductors” – formed by folding planar windings on modular surfaces into symmetric 3-D structures, which enables symmetric air-coupling of more than two phases. The air-coupled origami inductors, unlike traditional multiphase coupled inductors, do not need a magnetic core and can operate at high frequencies. Compared to discrete air-core inductors, the origami inductors can be easily transported and assembled and can offer reduced size, smaller current ripple, and faster transient due to dc and ac flux cancellation. Models are developed to quantify the performance benefits of the origami inductor. A tetrahedron-shaped four-phase origami inductor was designed and through FEM simulations, its reduced volume was verified. The origami …