Oxygen‐18 Labeling Reveals a Mixed Fe− O Mechanism in the Last Step of Cytochrome P450 51 Sterol 14α‐Demethylation

Angewandte Chemie

Published On 2024/2/26

The 14α‐demethylation step is critical in eukaryotic sterol biosynthesis, catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (P450) Family 51 enzymes, for example, with lanosterol in mammals. This conserved three‐step reaction terminates in a C−C cleavage step that generates formic acid, the nature of which has been controversial. Proposed mechanisms involve roles of P450 Compound 0 (ferric peroxide anion, FeO2−) or Compound I (perferryl oxygen, FeO3+) reacting with either the aldehyde or its hydrate, respectively. Analysis of 18O incorporation into formic acid from 18O2 provides a means of distinguishing the two mechanisms. Human P450 51A1 incorporated 88 % 18O (one atom) into formic acid, consistent with a major but not exclusive FeO2− mechanism. Two P450 51 orthologs from amoeba and yeast showed similar results, while two orthologs from pathogenic trypanosomes showed roughly equal contributions of both …

Journal

Angewandte Chemie

Published On

2024/2/26

Volume

136

Issue

9

Page

e202317711

Authors

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Position

Professor of Biochemistry

H-Index(all)

175

H-Index(since 2020)

51

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Enzymology

drug metabolism

cytochrome P450

mutagenesis

University Profile Page

Kevin D. McCarty

Kevin D. McCarty

Vanderbilt University

Position

H-Index(all)

4

H-Index(since 2020)

4

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Biochemistry

University Profile Page

Other Articles from authors

Kevin D. McCarty

Kevin D. McCarty

Vanderbilt University

ACS catalysis

Oxygen-18 Labeling Defines a Ferric Peroxide (Compound 0) Mechanism in the Oxidative Deformylation of Aldehydes by Cytochrome P450 2B4

Most cytochrome P450 (P450) oxidations are considered to occur with the active oxidant being a perferryl oxygen (FeO3+, Compound I). However, a ferric peroxide (FeO2̅, Compound 0) mechanism has been proposed, as well, particularly for aldehyde substrates. We investigated three of these systems, the oxidative deformylation of the model substrates citronellal, 2-phenylpropionaldehyde, and 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionaldehyde by rabbit P450 2B4, using 18O labeling. The formic acid product contained one 18O derived from 18O2, which is indicative of a dominant Compound 0 mechanism. The formic acid also contained only one 18O derived from H218O, which ruled out a Compound I mechanism. The possibility of a Baeyer–Villiger reaction was examined by using synthesized possible intermediates, but our data do not support its presence. Overall, these findings unambiguously demonstrate the role of the …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Medicinal Chemistry

Identification of Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Acanthamoeba: Structural Insights into Sterol 14α-Demethylase as a Key Drug Target

Fat mass obesity-associated protein (FTO) is a DNA/RNA demethylase involved in the epigenetic regulation of various genes and is considered a therapeutic target for obesity, cancer, and neurological disorders. Here, we aimed to design novel FTO-selective inhibitors by merging fragments of previously reported FTO inhibitors. Among the synthesized analogues, compound 11b, which merges key fragments of Hz (3) and MA (4), inhibited FTO selectively over alkylation repair homologue 5 (ALKBH5), another DNA/RNA demethylase. Treatment of acute monocytic leukemia NOMO-1 cells with a prodrug of 11b decreased the viability of acute monocytic leukemia cells, increased the level of the FTO substrate N6-methyladenosine in mRNA, and induced upregulation of MYC and downregulation of RARA, which are FTO target genes. Thus, Hz (3)/MA (4) hybrid analogues represent an entry into a new class of FTO …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Chemical Research in Toxicology

In Vivo and In Vitro Induction of Cytochrome P450 3A4 by Thalidomide in Humanized-Liver Mice and Experimental Human Hepatocyte HepaSH cells

Autoinduction of cytochrome P450 (P450) 3A4-mediated metabolism of thalidomide was investigated in humanized-liver mice and human hepatocyte-derived HepaSH cells. The mean plasma ratios of 5-hydroxythalidomide and glutathione adducts to thalidomide were significantly induced (3.5- and 6.0-fold, respectively) by thalidomide treatment daily at 1000 mg/kg for 3 days and measured at 2 h after the fourth administration (on day 4). 5-Hydroxythalidomide was metabolically activated by P450 3A4 in HepaSH cells pretreated with 300 and 1000 μM thalidomide, and 5,6-dihydroxythalidomide was detected. Significant induction of P450 3A4 mRNA expression (4.1-fold) in the livers of thalidomide-treated mice occurred. Thalidomide exerts a variety of actions through multiple mechanisms following bioactivation by induced human P450 3A enzymes.

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Formation of potentially toxic metabolites of drugs in reactions catalyzed by human drug-metabolizing enzymes

Data are presented on the formation of potentially toxic metabolites of drugs that are substrates of human drug metabolizing enzymes. The tabular data lists the formation of potentially toxic/reactive products. The data were obtained from in vitro experiments and showed that the oxidative reactions predominate (with 96% of the total potential toxication reactions). Reductive reactions (e.g., reduction of nitro to amino group and reductive dehalogenation) participate to the extent of 4%. Of the enzymes, cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes catalyzed 72% of the reactions, myeloperoxidase (MPO) 7%, flavin-containing monooxygenase (FMO) 3%, aldehyde oxidase (AOX) 4%, sulfotransferase (SULT) 5%, and a group of minor participating enzymes to the extent of 9%. Within the P450 Superfamily, P450 Subfamily 3A (P450 3A4 and 3A5) participates to the extent of 27% and the Subfamily 2C (P450 2C9 and P450 2C19 …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Proteomics, modeling, and fluorescence assays delineate cytochrome b5 residues involved in binding and stimulation of cytochrome P450 17A1 17, 20-lyase

Cytochrome b5 (b5) is known to stimulate some catalytic activities of cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) enzymes, although mechanisms still need to be defined. The reactions most strongly enhanced by b5 are the 17,20-lyase reactions of P450 17A1 involved in steroid biosynthesis. We had previously used a fluorescently labeled human b5 variant (Alexa 488-T70C-b5) to characterize human P450 17A1-b5 interactions, but subsequent proteomic analyses indicated that lysines in b5 were also modified with Alexa 488 maleimide in addition to Cys-70, due to disulfide dimerization of the T70C mutant. A series of b5 variants were constructed with Cys replacements for the identified lysine residues and labeled with the dye. Fluorescence attenuation and the function of b5 in the steroid lyase reaction depended on the modified position. Apo-b5 (devoid of heme group) studies revealed the lack of involvement of the b5 heme in …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Angewandte Chemie

Oxygen‐18 Labeling Reveals a Mixed Fe− O Mechanism in the Last Step of Cytochrome P450 51 Sterol 14α‐Demethylation

The 14α‐demethylation step is critical in eukaryotic sterol biosynthesis, catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (P450) Family 51 enzymes, for example, with lanosterol in mammals. This conserved three‐step reaction terminates in a C−C cleavage step that generates formic acid, the nature of which has been controversial. Proposed mechanisms involve roles of P450 Compound 0 (ferric peroxide anion, FeO2−) or Compound I (perferryl oxygen, FeO3+) reacting with either the aldehyde or its hydrate, respectively. Analysis of 18O incorporation into formic acid from 18O2 provides a means of distinguishing the two mechanisms. Human P450 51A1 incorporated 88 % 18O (one atom) into formic acid, consistent with a major but not exclusive FeO2− mechanism. Two P450 51 orthologs from amoeba and yeast showed similar results, while two orthologs from pathogenic trypanosomes showed roughly equal contributions of both …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Ninety-eight semesters of cytochrome P450 enzymes and related topics—What have I taught and learned?

This Reflection article begins with my family background and traces my career through elementary and high school, followed by time at the University of Illinois, Vanderbilt University, the University of Michigan, and then for 98 semesters as a Vanderbilt University faculty member. My research career has dealt with aspects of cytochrome P450 enzymes, and the basic biochemistry has had applications in fields as diverse as drug metabolism, toxicology, medicinal chemistry, pharmacogenetics, biological engineering, and bioremediation. I am grateful for the opportunity to work with the Journal of Biological Chemistry not only as an author but also for 34 years as an Editorial Board Member, Associate Editor, Deputy Editor, and interim Editor-in-Chief. Thanks are extended to my family and my mentors, particularly Profs. Harry Broquist and Minor J. Coon, and the more than 170 people who have trained with me. I have …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

ACS catalysis

Oxygen-18 Labeling Defines a Ferric Peroxide (Compound 0) Mechanism in the Oxidative Deformylation of Aldehydes by Cytochrome P450 2B4

Most cytochrome P450 (P450) oxidations are considered to occur with the active oxidant being a perferryl oxygen (FeO3+, Compound I). However, a ferric peroxide (FeO2̅, Compound 0) mechanism has been proposed, as well, particularly for aldehyde substrates. We investigated three of these systems, the oxidative deformylation of the model substrates citronellal, 2-phenylpropionaldehyde, and 2-methyl-2-phenylpropionaldehyde by rabbit P450 2B4, using 18O labeling. The formic acid product contained one 18O derived from 18O2, which is indicative of a dominant Compound 0 mechanism. The formic acid also contained only one 18O derived from H218O, which ruled out a Compound I mechanism. The possibility of a Baeyer–Villiger reaction was examined by using synthesized possible intermediates, but our data do not support its presence. Overall, these findings unambiguously demonstrate the role of the …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Principles of Xenobiotic Metabolism (Biotransformation)

This chapter provides a general overview of metabolic reactions and their significance. Basic concepts and terminology related to biotransformation, activity, and toxicityToxicity are explained and discussed. Major enzymes involved in oxidationOxidation, reductionReduction, hydrolytic, and conjugationConjugation are covered including enzyme nomenclature, localization, catalytic cycle, coenzymes, relevance of individual enzymes, types of reactions, substrates and metabolites, influence of metabolic reactions on the activity/toxicity of xenobiotics, enzyme inhibition, and relevance if applicable.

Kevin D. McCarty

Kevin D. McCarty

Vanderbilt University

Angewandte Chemie

Oxygen‐18 Labeling Reveals a Mixed Fe− O Mechanism in the Last Step of Cytochrome P450 51 Sterol 14α‐Demethylation

The 14α‐demethylation step is critical in eukaryotic sterol biosynthesis, catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (P450) Family 51 enzymes, for example, with lanosterol in mammals. This conserved three‐step reaction terminates in a C−C cleavage step that generates formic acid, the nature of which has been controversial. Proposed mechanisms involve roles of P450 Compound 0 (ferric peroxide anion, FeO2−) or Compound I (perferryl oxygen, FeO3+) reacting with either the aldehyde or its hydrate, respectively. Analysis of 18O incorporation into formic acid from 18O2 provides a means of distinguishing the two mechanisms. Human P450 51A1 incorporated 88 % 18O (one atom) into formic acid, consistent with a major but not exclusive FeO2− mechanism. Two P450 51 orthologs from amoeba and yeast showed similar results, while two orthologs from pathogenic trypanosomes showed roughly equal contributions of both …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Biological Chemistry

The multistep oxidation of cholesterol to pregnenolone by human cytochrome P450 11A1 is highly processive

Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) 11A1 is the classical cholesterol side chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) that removes six carbons of the side chain, the first and rate-limiting step in the synthesis of all mammalian steroids. The reaction is a 3-step, 6-electron oxidation that proceeds via formation of 22R-hydroxy (OH) and 20R,22R-(OH)2 cholesterol, yielding pregnenolone. We expressed human P450 11A1 in bacteria, purified the enzyme in the absence of nonionic detergents, and assayed pregnenolone formation by HPLC-mass spectrometry of the dansyl hydrazone. The reaction was inhibited by the nonionic detergent Tween 20, and several lipids did not enhance enzymatic activity. The 22R-OH and 20R,22R-(OH)2 cholesterol intermediates were bound to P450 11A1 relatively tightly, as judged by steady-state optical titrations and koff rates. The electron donor adrenodoxin had little effect on binding; the substrate …

2023/11/24

Article Details
Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of Biological Chemistry

Processive kinetics in the three-step lanosterol 14α-demethylation reaction catalyzed by human cytochrome P450 51A1

Cytochrome P450 (P450, CYP) family 51 enzymes catalyze the 14α-demethylation of sterols, leading to critical products used for membranes and the production of steroids, as well as signaling molecules. In mammals, P450 51 catalyzes the 3-step, 6-electron oxidation of lanosterol to form (4β,5α)-4,4-dimethyl-cholestra-8,14,24-trien-3-ol (FF-MAS). P450 51A1 can also use 24,25-dihydrolanosterol (a natural substrate in the Kandutsch-Russell cholesterol pathway). 24,25-Dihydrolanosterol and the corresponding P450 51A1 reaction intermediates, the 14α-alcohol and -aldehyde derivatives of dihydrolanosterol, were synthesized to study the kinetic processivity of the overall 14α-demethylation reaction of human P450 51A1. A combination of steady-state kinetic parameters, steady-state binding constants, dissociation rates of P450-sterol complexes, and kinetic modeling of the time course of oxidation of a P450 …

Kevin D. McCarty

Kevin D. McCarty

Vanderbilt University

Steroid 17α-hydroxylase/17, 20-lyase (cytochrome P450 17A1)

Cytochrome P450 (P450) 17A1 plays a key role in steroidogenesis, in that this enzyme catalyzes the 17α-hydroxylation of both pregnenolone and progesterone, followed by a lyase reaction to cleave the C-20 land C-21 carbons from each steroid. The reactions are important in the production of both glucocorticoids and androgens. The enzyme is critical in humans but is also a drug target in treatment of prostate cancer. Detailed methods are described for the heterologous expression of human P450 17A1 in bacteria, purification of the recombinant enzyme, reconstitution of the enzyme system in the presence of cytochrome b5, and chromatographic procedures for sensitive analyses of reaction products. Historic assay approaches are reviewed. Some information is also provided about outstanding questions in the research field, including catalytic mechanisms and searches for selective inhibitors.

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Nucleic Acids Research

Basis for the discrimination of supercoil handedness during DNA cleavage by human and bacterial type II topoisomerases

To perform double-stranded DNA passage, type II topoisomerases generate a covalent enzyme-cleaved DNA complex (i.e. cleavage complex). Although this complex is a requisite enzyme intermediate, it is also intrinsically dangerous to genomic stability. Consequently, cleavage complexes are the targets for several clinically relevant anticancer and antibacterial drugs. Human topoisomerase IIα and IIβ and bacterial gyrase maintain higher levels of cleavage complexes with negatively supercoiled over positively supercoiled DNA substrates. Conversely, bacterial topoisomerase IV is less able to distinguish DNA supercoil handedness. Despite the importance of supercoil geometry to the activities of type II topoisomerases, the basis for supercoil handedness recognition during DNA cleavage has not been characterized. Based on the results of benchtop and rapid-quench flow kinetics experiments, the forward …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Xenobiotica

The influence of temperature on the metabolic activity of CYP2C9, CYP2C19, and CYP3A4 genetic variants in vitro

1. Temperature is considered to affect the activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes; however, no previous studies have compared temperature dependency among cytochrome P450 genetic variants. This study aimed to analyse warfarin 7-hydroxylation by CYP2C9 variants; omeprazole 5-hydroxylation by CYP2C19 variants; and midazolam 1-hydroxylation by CYP3A4 variants at 34 °C, 37 °C, and 40 °C.2. Compared with that seen at 37 °C, the intrinsic clearance rates (Vmax/Km) of CYP2C9.1 and .2 were decreased (76 ∼ 82%), while that of CYP2C9.3 was unchanged at 34 °C. At 40 °C, CYP2C9.1, .2, and .3 exhibited increased (121%), unchanged and decreased (87%) intrinsic clearance rates, respectively. At 34 °C, the clearance rates of CYP2C19.1A and .10 were decreased (71 ∼ 86%), that of CYP2C19.1B was unchanged, and those of CYP2C19.8 and .23 were increased (130 ∼ 134%). At 40 …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Food and Chemical Toxicology

FEMA GRAS assessment of natural flavor complexes: Lemongrass oil, chamomile oils, citronella oil and related flavoring ingredients

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a program for the re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavor ingredients. This publication, eleventh in the series, evaluates the safety of NFCs characterized by primary alcohol, aldehyde, carboxylic acid, ester and lactone constituents derived from terpenoid biosynthetic pathways and/or lipid metabolism. The scientific-based evaluation procedure published in 2005 and updated in 2018 that relies on a complete constituent characterization of the NFC and organization of the constituents into congeneric groups. The safety of the NFCs is evaluated using the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept in addition to data on estimated intake, metabolism and toxicology of members of the congeneric groups and for the NFC under evaluation. The scope of the safety evaluation …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Food and Chemical Toxicology

FEMA GRAS assessment of derivatives of basil, nutmeg, parsley, tarragon and related allylalkoxybenzene-containing natural flavor complexes

In 2015, the Expert Panel of the Flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association (FEMA) initiated a program for the re-evaluation of the safety of over 250 natural flavor complexes (NFCs) used as flavoring ingredients in food. In this publication, tenth in the series, NFCs containing a high percentage of at least one naturally occurring allylalkoxybenzene constituent with a suspected concern for genotoxicity and/or carcinogenicity are evaluated. In a related paper, ninth in the series, NFCs containing anethole and/or eugenol and relatively low percentages of these allylalkoxybenzenes are evaluated. The Panel applies the threshold of toxicological concern (TTC) concept and evaluates relevant toxicology data on the NFCs and their respective constituent congeneric groups. For NFCs containing allylalkoxybenzene constituent(s), the estimated intake of the constituent is compared to the TTC for compounds with structural …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

International Journal of Molecular Sciences

Identification of Three Human POLH Germline Variants Defective in Complementing the UV-and Cisplatin-Sensitivity of POLH-Deficient Cells

DNA polymerase (pol) η is responsible for error-free translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) opposite ultraviolet light (UV)-induced cis-syn cyclobutane thymine dimers (CTDs) and cisplatin-induced intrastrand guanine crosslinks. POLH deficiency causes one form of the skin cancer-prone disease xeroderma pigmentosum variant (XPV) and cisplatin sensitivity, but the functional impacts of its germline variants remain unclear. We evaluated the functional properties of eight human POLH germline in silico-predicted deleterious missense variants, using biochemical and cell-based assays. In enzymatic assays, utilizing recombinant pol η (residues 1—432) proteins, the C34W, I147N, and R167Q variants showed 4- to 14-fold and 3- to 5-fold decreases in specificity constants (kcat/Km) for dATP insertion opposite the 3’-T and 5′-T of a CTD, respectively, compared to the wild-type, while the other variants displayed 2- to 4-fold increases. A CRISPR/Cas9-mediated POLH knockout increased the sensitivity of human embryonic kidney 293 cells to UV and cisplatin, which was fully reversed by ectopic expression of wild-type pol η, but not by that of an inactive (D115A/E116A) or either of two XPV-pathogenic (R93P and G263V) mutants. Ectopic expression of the C34W, I147N, and R167Q variants, unlike the other variants, did not rescue the UV- and cisplatin-sensitivity in POLH-knockout cells. Our results indicate that the C34W, I147N, and R167Q variants—substantially reduced in TLS activity—failed to rescue the UV- and cisplatin-sensitive phenotype of POLH-deficient cells, which also raises the possibility that such hypoactive germline POLH variants may …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

Journal of inorganic biochemistry

Hydroxylation and lyase reactions of steroids catalyzed by mouse cytochrome P450 17A1 (Cyp17a1)

Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1) catalyzes 17α-hydroxylation and 17,20-lyase reactions with steroid hormones. Mice contain an orthologous Cyp17a1 enzyme in the genome, and its amino acid sequence has high similarity with human CYP17A1. We purified recombinant mouse Cyp17a1 and characterized its oxidation reactions with progesterone and pregnenolone. The open reading frame of the mouse Cyp17a1 gene was inserted and successfully expressed in Escherichia coli and then purified using Ni2+-nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) affinity column chromatography. Purified mouse Cyp17a1 displayed typical Type I binding titration spectral changes upon the addition of progesterone, 17α-OH progesterone, pregnenolone, and 17α-OH pregnenolone, with similar binding affinities to those of human CYP17A1. Catalytic activities for 17α-hydroxylation and 17,20-lyase reactions were studied using ultra-performance …

Fred Guengerich

Fred Guengerich

Vanderbilt University

The Importance of Biotransformation

Biotransformation is important in considerations of toxicity of chemicals. What begins as a well-defined compound may lead to a mixture of chemicals after it enters the body. The changes may be beneficial or detrimental. A potentially harmful chemical may be rapidly inactivated, at low doses. Conversely, an innocuous compound may be transformed into a toxic one. There are cases of both detoxication and bioactivation for the same chemical, sometimes even with the same enzyme being involved in both changes (e.g., aflatoxin B1 and cytochrome P450 3A4). A proper understanding of the chemical changes, the enzymes involved, and the kinetics of changes is needed to understand the outcomes regarding safety assessment.

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Angewandte Chemie

Stabilizing Diluted Active Sites of Ultrasmall High‐Entropy Intermetallics for Efficient Formic Acid Electrooxidation

The poisoning of undesired intermediates or impurities greatly hinders the catalytic performances of noble metal‐based catalysts. Herein, high‐entropy intermetallics i‐(PtPdIrRu)2FeCu (HEI) are constructed to inhibit the strongly adsorbed carbon monoxide intermediates (CO*) during the formic acid oxidation reaction. As probed by multiple‐scaled structural characterizations, HEI nanoparticles are featured with partially negative Pt oxidation states, diluted Pt/Pd/Ir/Ru atomic sites and ultrasmall average size less than 2 nm. Benefiting from the optimized structures, HEI nanoparticles deliver more than 10 times promotion in intrinsic activity than that of pure Pt, and well‐enhanced mass activity/durability than that of ternary i‐Pt2FeCu intermetallics counterpart. In situ infrared spectroscopy manifests that both bridge and top CO* are favored on pure Pt but limited on HEI. Further theoretical elaboration indicates that HEI …

David A Case

David A Case

Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey

Angewandte Chemie

Enhanced TROSY Effect in [2‐19F, 2‐13C] Adenosine and ATP Analogs Facilitates NMR Spectroscopy of Very Large Biological RNAs in Solution

Large RNAs are central to cellular functions, but characterizing such RNAs remains challenging by solution NMR. We present two labeling technologies based on [2‐19F, 2‐13C]‐adenosine, which allow the incorporation of aromatic 19F‐13C spin pairs. The labels when coupled with the transverse relaxation optimized spectroscopy (TROSY) enable us to probe RNAs comprising up to 124 nucleotides. With our new [2‐19F, 2‐13C]‐adenosine‐phosphoramidite, all resonances of the human hepatitis B virus epsilon RNA could be readily assigned. With [2‐19F, 2‐13C]‐adenosine triphosphate, the 124 nt pre‐miR‐17‐NPSL1‐RNA was produced via in vitro transcription and the TROSY spectrum of this 40 kDa [2‐19F, 2‐13C]‐A‐labeled RNA featured sharper resonances than the [2‐1H, 2‐13C]‐A sample. The mutual cancelation of the chemical‐shift‐anisotropy and the dipole‐dipole‐components of TROSY …

Ifan E. L. Stephens

Ifan E. L. Stephens

Imperial College London

Angewandte Chemie

Probing Degradation in Lithium Ion Batteries with On‐Chip Electrochemistry Mass Spectrometry

The rapid uptake of lithium ion batteries (LIBs) for large scale electric vehicle and energy storage applications requires a deeper understanding of the degradation mechanisms. Capacity fade is due to the complex interplay between phase transitions, electrolyte decomposition and transition metal dissolution; many of these poorly understood parasitic reactions evolve gases as a side product. Here we present an on‐chip electrochemistry mass spectrometry method that enables ultra‐sensitive, fully quantified and time resolved detection of volatile species evolving from an operating LIB. The technique's electrochemical performance and mass transport is described by a finite element model and then experimentally used to demonstrate the variety of new insights into LIB performance. We show the versatility of the technique, including (a) observation of oxygen evolving from a LiNiMnCoO2 cathode and (b) the solid …

Tianyun Jin

Tianyun Jin

Ocean University of China

Angewandte Chemie

Polycationic Open‐Shell Cyclophanes: Synthesis of Electron‐Rich Chiral Macrocycles, and Redox‐Dependent Electronic States

π‐Conjugated chiral nanorings with intriguing electronic structures and chiroptical properties have attracted considerable interests in synthetic chemistry and materials science. We present the design principles to access new chiral macrocycles (1 and 2) that are essentially built on the key components of main‐group electron‐donating carbazolyl moieties or the π‐expanded aza[7]helicenes. Both macrocycles show the unique molecular conformations with a (quasi) figure‐of‐eight topology as a result of the conjugation patterns of 2,2’,7,7’‐spirobifluorenyl in 1 and triarylamine‐coupled aza[7]helicene‐based building blocks in 2. This electronic nature of redox‐active, carbazole‐rich backbones enabled these macrocycles to be readily oxidized chemically and electrochemically, leading to the sequential production of a series of positively charged polycationic open‐shell cyclophanes. Their redox‐dependent electronic …

Dan Wang

Dan Wang

Yale University

Angewandte Chemie

Multi‐Functional Integration of Phosphor, Initiator, and Crosslinker for the Photo‐Polymerization of Flexible Phosphorescent Polymer Gels

A general approach to constructing room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) materials involves the incorporation of a phosphorescent emitter into a rigid host or polymers with high glass transition temperature. However, these materials often suffer from poor processability and suboptimal mechanical properties, limiting their practical applications. In this work, we developed benzothiadiazole‐based dialkene (BTD‐HEA), a multifunctional phosphorescent emitter with a remarkable yield of intersystem crossing (ΦISC, 99.83 %). Its high triplet exciton generation ability and dialkene structure enable BTD‐HEA to act as a photoinitiator and crosslinker, efficiently initiating the polymerization of various monomers within 120 seconds. A range of flexible phosphorescence gels, including hydrogels, organogels, ionogels, and aerogels were fabricated, which exhibit outstanding stretchability and recoverability. Furthermore …

Tomas Torres

Tomas Torres

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Angewandte Chemie

Rücktitelbild: Intramolekulare Triplett‑Diffusion erleichtert die Triplett‑Dissoziation in einem Pentacen‑Hexamer (Angew. Chem. 8/2024)

Rücktitelbild: Intramolekulare Triplett‑Diffusion erleichtert die Triplett‑Dissoziation in einem Pentacen‑Hexamer (Angew. Chem. 8/2024) - NASA/ADS Now on home page ads icon ads Enable full ADS view NASA/ADS Rücktitelbild: Intramolekulare Triplett‑Diffusion erleichtert die Triplett‑Dissoziation in einem Pentacen‑Hexamer (Angew. Chem. 8/2024) Greißel, Phillip M. ; Thiel, Dominik ; Gotfredsen, Henrik ; Chen, Lan ; Krug, Marcel ; Papadopoulos, Ilias ; Miskolzie, Mark ; Torres, Tomás ; Clark, Timothy ; Brøndsted Nielsen, Mogens ; Tykwinski, Rik R. ; Guldi, Dirk M. Abstract Publication: Angewandte Chemie Pub Date: February 2024 DOI: 10.1002/ange.202401329 Bibcode: 2024AngCh.136E1329G full text sources Publisher | © The SAO/NASA Astrophysics Data System adshelp[at]cfa.harvard.edu The ADS is operated by the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory under NASA Cooperative Agreement NNX16AC86A …

Tomas Torres

Tomas Torres

Universidad Autónoma de Madrid

Angewandte Chemie

Intramolekulare Triplett‐Diffusion erleichtert die Triplett‐Dissoziation in einem Pentacen‐Hexamer

Die Triplett‐Dynamik bei der Singulettspaltung hängt stark von der Stärke der elektronischen Kopplung ab. Kovalente Systeme in Lösung bieten eine präzise Kontrolle über solche Kopplungen. Dennoch bleibt die effiziente Erzeugung freier Triplett‐Zustände in den meisten Systemen schwer fassbar, da das intermediäre Triplett‐Paar 1(T1T1) aufgrund seiner räumlichen Begrenzung anfällig für Triplett‐Triplett‐Annihilation ist. Im Festkörper unterstützt die durch Entropie angetriebene Triplett‐Diffusion die räumliche Trennung der Triplett‐Zustände, was zu vermehrten Bildung freier Triplett‐Zustände führt. Einfluss auf die elektronische Kopplung im Festkörper zu nehmen ist jedoch herausfordernd, da sie sich mit der Anordnung der Moleküle im Festkörper ändert.. Daher haben wir ein hexameres System (HexPnc) entwickelt, um eine festkörperähnliche Triplett‐Diffusion auf molekularer Ebene zu ermöglichen. Dieses …

Huarong Xia (夏华荣)

Huarong Xia (夏华荣)

Peking University

Angewandte Chemie

Hygroscopic Solutes Enable Non‐van der Waals Electrolytes for Fire‐Tolerant Dual‐Air Batteries

Thermal safety issues of batteries have hindered their large‐scale applications. Nonflammable electrolytes improved safety but solvent evaporation above 100 °C limited thermal tolerance, lacking reliability. Herein, fire‐tolerant metal‐air batteries were realized by introducing solute‐in‐air electrolytes whose hygroscopic solutes could spontaneously reabsorb the evaporated water solvent. Using Zn/CaCl2‐in‐air/carbon batteries as a proof‐of‐concept, they failed upon burning at 631.8 °C but self‐recovered then by reabsorbing water from the air at room temperature. Different from conventional aqueous electrolytes whose irreversible thermal transformation is determined by the boiling points of solvents, solute‐in‐air electrolytes make this transformation determined by the much higher decomposition temperature of solutes. It was found that stronger intramolecular bonds instead of intermolecular (van der Waals …

Huarong Xia (夏华荣)

Huarong Xia (夏华荣)

Peking University

Angewandte Chemie

Titelbild: Hygroscopic Solutes Enable Non‐van der Waals Electrolytes for Fire‐Tolerant Dual‐Air Batteries (Angew. Chem. 12/2024)

Solute-in-air electrolytes are applied in metal-air batteries, introducing dual-air batteries for intrinsic safe energy storage. In their Research Article (e202318369), Xiaodong Chen and co-workers demonstrate that fire-tolerant batteries are achieved, and reveal that the highest tolerance temperature of electrolytes is determined by solute intramolecular bonds instead of solvent intermolecular interactions, inspiring a concept of non-van der Waals electrolytes for their thermal stability.

Zhijun Zuo

Zhijun Zuo

Stanford University

Angewandte Chemie

Cooperative Photoredox and Cobalt‐catalyzed Acceptorless Dehydrogenative Functionalization of Cyclopropylamides towards Allylic N, O‐Acyl‐acetal Derivatives

We disclose herein a novel photoredox and cobalt co‐catalyzed ring‐opening/acceptorless dehydrogenative functionalization of mono‐donor cyclopropanes, which providing a sustainable and atom‐economic approach to rapidly assemble a wide range of allylic N,O‐acyl‐acetal derivatives. The optimized conditions accommodate assorted cycloalkylamides and primary, secondary and tertiary alcohols, with applications in late‐stage functionalization of pharmaceutically relevant compounds, stimulating the further utility in medicinal chemistry. Moreover, selective nucleophilic substitutions with various carbon nucleophiles were succeed in a one‐pot fashion, offering a reliable avenue to access some cyclic and acyclic derivatives.

Jun Lu

Jun Lu

Florida State University

Angewandte Chemie

Accelerating S↔Li2S Reactions in Li–S Batteries through Activation of S/Li2S with a Bifunctional Semiquinone Catalyst

The reaction rate bottleneck during interconversion between insulating S8 (S) and Li2S fundamentally leads to incomplete conversion and restricted lifespan of Li−S battery, especially under high S loading and lean electrolyte conditions. Herein, we demonstrate a new catalytic chemistry: soluble semiquinone, 2‐tertbutyl‐semianthraquinone lithium (Li+TBAQ⋅−), as both e‐/Li+ donor and acceptor for simultaneous S reduction and Li2S oxidation. The efficient activation of S and Li2S by Li+TBAQ⋅− in the initial discharging/charging state maximizes the amount of soluble lithium polysulfide, thereby substantially improve the rate of solid–liquid‐solid reaction by promoting long‐range electron transfer. With in situ Raman spectra and theoretical calculations, we reveal that the activation of S/Li2S is the rate‐limiting step for effective S utilization under high S loading and low E/S ratio. Beyond that, the S activation ratio is …