Mass spectrometry imaging methods for visualizing tumor heterogeneity

Published On 2024/4/1

HighlightsCurrent strategies to map lipids, metabolites, and proteins in tumor tissues.Recent biological insights obtained from MSI of tumor samples.Challenges in applying MSI to study tumor biology.Profiling spatial distributions of lipids, metabolites, and proteins in tumors can reveal unique cellular microenvironments and provide molecular evidence for cancer cell dysfunction and proliferation. Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) is a label-free technique that can be used to map biomolecules in tumors in situ. Here, we discuss current progress in applying MSI to uncover molecular heterogeneity in tumors. First, the analytical strategies to profile small molecules and proteins are outlined, and current methods for multimodal imaging to maximize biological information are highlighted. Second, we present and summarize biological insights obtained by MSI of tumor tissue. Finally, we discuss important considerations for …

Published On

2024/4/1

Volume

86

Page

103068

Authors

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

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94

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46

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biochemistry

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Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Position

Department of Chemistry Nanaimo BC Canada

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13

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12

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Citation(since 2020)

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Research Interests

mass spectrometry

bioanalytical chemistry

electrospray ionization

mass spectrometry imaging

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Other Articles from authors

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Journal of proteome research

Establishing Personalized Blood Protein Reference Ranges Using Noninvasive Microsampling and Targeted Proteomics: Implications for Antidoping Strategies

To prevent doping practices in sports, the World Anti-Doping Agency implemented the Athlete Biological Passport (ABP) program, monitoring biological variables over time to indirectly reveal the effects of doping rather than detect the doping substance or the method itself. In the context of this program, a highly multiplexed mass spectrometry-based proteomics assay for 319 peptides corresponding to 250 proteins was developed, including proteins associated with blood-doping practices. “Baseline” expression profiles of these potential biomarkers in capillary blood (dried blood spots (DBS)) were established using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). Combining DBS microsampling with highly multiplexed MRM assays is the best-suited technology to enhance the effectiveness of the ABP program, as it represents a cost-effective and robust alternative analytical method with high specificity and selectivity of targets in …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Advances in Prostaglandin

Advances in Prostaglandin

Prostaglandins (PG) are a group of physiologically active lipid compounds called eicosanoids having diverse hormone-like effects in animals. Prostaglandins have been found in almost every tissue in humans and other animals. They are derived enzymatically from the fatty acid arachidonic acid.Every prostaglandin contains 20 carbon atoms, including a 5-carbon ring. They are a subclass of eicosanoids and of the prostanoid class of fatty acid derivatives. In the present book, twelve typical literatures about prostaglandin published on international authoritative journals were selected to introduce the worldwide newest progress, which contains reviews or original researches on prostaglandin. We hope this book can demonstrate advances in prostaglandin as well as give references to the researchers, students and other related people.

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Molecular Cancer Therapeutics

Structural Basis for Multivalent MUC16 Recognition and Robust Anti-Pancreatic Cancer Activity of Humanized Antibody AR9. 6

Mucin-16 (MUC16) is a target for antibody-mediated immunotherapy in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) amongst other malignancies. The MUC16 specific monoclonal antibody AR9.6 has shown promise for PDAC immunotherapy and imaging. Here, we report the structural and biological characterization of the humanized AR9.6 antibody (huAR9.6). The structure of huAR9.6 was determined in complex with a MUC16 SEA (Sea urchin sperm, Enterokinase, Agrin) domain. Binding of huAR9.6 to recombinant, shed, and cell-surface MUC16 was characterized, and anti-PDAC activity was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. huAR9.6 bound a discontinuous, SEA domain epitope with an affinity of ~90 nM. Binding affinity depended on the specific SEA domain(s) present, and glycosylation enhanced affinity by 3-7-fold driven by favorable entropy and enthalpy and via distinct transition state thermodynamic …

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Mbio

Divergent Pseudomonas aeruginosa LpxO enzymes perform site-specific lipid A 2-hydroxylation

Pseudomonas aeruginosa can survive in a myriad of environments, partially due to modifications of its lipid A, the membrane anchor of lipopolysaccharide. We previously demonstrated that divergent late acyltransferase paralogs, HtrB1 and HtrB2, add acyloxyacyl laurate to lipid A 2- and 2′-acyl chains, respectively. The genome of P. aeruginosa also has genes which encode two dioxygenase enzymes, LpxO1 and LpxO2, that individually hydroxylate a specific secondary laurate. LpxO1 acts on the 2′-acyloxyacyl laurate (added by HtrB2), whereas LpxO2 acts on the 2-acyloxyacyl laurate (added by HtrB1) in a site-specific manner. Furthermore, while both enzyme pairs are evolutionarily linked, phylogenomic analysis suggests the LpxO1/HtrB2 enzyme pair as being of ancestral origin, present throughout the Pseudomonas lineage, whereas the LpxO2/HtrB1 enzyme pair likely arose via horizontal gene transfer …

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Deletion of 3-Hydroxy-3-Methylglutaryl-Coenzyme A Reductase Promotes Expansion of the Resident Stem Cell Compartment

BACKGROUND The intestine occupies the critical interface between cholesterol absorption and excretion. Surprisingly little is known about the role of de novo cholesterol synthesis in this organ, and its relationship to whole body cholesterol homeostasis. Here, we investigate the physiological importance of this pathway through genetic deletion of the rate-limiting enzyme. METHODS Mice lacking 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (Hmgcr) in intestinal villus and crypt epithelial cells were generated using a Villin-Cre transgene. Plasma lipids, intestinal morphology, mevalonate pathway metabolites, and gene expression were analyzed. RESULTS Mice with intestine-specific loss of Hmgcr were markedly smaller at birth, but gain weight at a rate similar to wildtype littermates, and are viable and fertile into adulthood. Intestine lengths and weights were greater relative to body weight in both male and female Hmgcr intestinal knockout mice. Male intestinal knockout had decreased plasma cholesterol levels, whereas fasting triglycerides were lower in both sexes. Lipidomics revealed substantial reductions in numerous nonsterol isoprenoids and sterol intermediates within the epithelial layer, but cholesterol levels were preserved. Hmgcr intestinal knockout mice also showed robust activation of SREBP-2 (sterol-regulatory element binding protein-2) target genes in the epithelium, including the LDLR (low-density lipoprotein receptor). At the cellular level, loss of Hmgcr is compensated for quickly after birth through a dramatic expansion of the stem cell compartment, which persists into adulthood. CONCLUSIONS Loss of Hmgcr in the intestine …

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Frontiers in Microbiology

Lipid A structural diversity among members of the genus Leptospira

Lipid A is the hydrophobic component of bacterial lipopolysaccharide and an activator of the host immune system. Bacteria modify their lipid A structure to adapt to the surrounding environment and, in some cases, to evade recognition by host immune cells. In this study, lipid A structural diversity within the Leptospira genus was explored. The individual Leptospira species have dramatically different pathogenic potential that ranges from non-infectious to life-threatening disease (leptospirosis). Ten distinct lipid A profiles, denoted L1-L10, were discovered across 31 Leptospira reference species, laying a foundation for lipid A-based molecular typing. Tandem MS analysis revealed structural features of Leptospira membrane lipids that might alter recognition of its lipid A by the host innate immune receptors. Results of this study will aid development of strategies to improve diagnosis and surveillance of leptospirosis, as well as guide functional studies on Leptospira lipid A activity.

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Analytical Chemistry

Structural Elucidation of Intact Rough-Type Lipopolysaccharides using Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility Spectrometry and Kendrick Mass Defect Plots

Lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) are a hallmark virulence factor of Gram-negative bacteria. They are complex, structurally heterogeneous mixtures due to variations in number, type, and position of their simplest units: fatty acids and monosaccharides. Thus, LPS structural characterization by traditional mass spectrometry (MS) methods is challenging. Here, we describe the benefits of field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry (FAIMS) for analysis of an intact R-type lipopolysaccharide complex mixture (lipooligosaccharide; LOS). Structural characterization was performed using Escherichia coli J5 (Rc mutant) LOS, a TLR4 agonist widely used in glycoconjugate vaccine research. FAIMS gas-phase fractionation improved the (S/N) ratio and number of detected LOS species. Additionally, FAIMS allowed the separation of overlapping isobars facilitating their tandem MS characterization and unequivocal structural assignments …

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Scientific Reports

Deep proteome coverage advances knowledge of Treponema pallidum protein expression profiles during infection

Comprehensive proteome-wide analysis of the syphilis spirochete, Treponema pallidum ssp. pallidum, is technically challenging due to high sample complexity, difficulties with obtaining sufficient quantities of bacteria for analysis, and the inherent fragility of the T. pallidum cell envelope which further complicates proteomic identification of rare T. pallidum outer membrane proteins (OMPs). The main aim of the present study was to gain a deeper understanding of the T. pallidum global proteome expression profile under infection conditions. This will corroborate and extend genome annotations, identify protein modifications that are unable to be predicted at the genomic or transcriptomic levels, and provide a foundational knowledge of the T. pallidum protein expression repertoire. Here we describe the optimization of a T. pallidum-specific sample preparation workflow and mass spectrometry-based proteomics pipeline …

2023/10/25

Article Details
david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry

Structure Determination of Lipid A with Multiple Glycosylation Sites by Tandem MS of Lithium-Adducted Negative Ions

FLATn is a tandem mass spectrometric technique that can be used to rapidly generate spectral information applicable for structural elucidation of lipids like lipid A from Gram-negative bacterial species from a single bacterial colony. In this study, we extend the scope and capability of FLATn by tandem MS fragmentation of lithium-adducted molecular lipid A anions and fragments (FLATn-Li) that provides additional structural and diagnostic data from FLATn samples allowing for the discrimination of terminal phosphate modifications in a variety of pathogenic and environmental species. Using FLATn-Li, we elucidated the lipid A structure from several bacterial species, including novel structures from arctic bacterioplankton of the Duganella and Massilia genera that favor 4-amino-4-deoxy-l-arabinopyranose (Ara4N) modification at the 1-phosphate position and that demonstrate double glycosylation with Ara4N at the 1 …

Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Strategies for uncovering stable isotope tracing patterns between cell populations

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Kyle Duncan

Kyle Duncan

Vancouver Island University

Analytical Chemistry

Ion-to-image, i2i, a mass spectrometry imaging data analysis platform for continuous ionization techniques

Mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) techniques generate data that reveal spatial distributions of molecules on a surface with high sensitivity and selectivity. However, processing large volumes of mass spectrometry data into useful ion images is not trivial. Furthermore, data from MSI techniques using continuous ionization sources where data are acquired in line scans require different data handling strategies compared to data collected from pulsed ionization sources where data are acquired in grids. In addition, for continuous ionization sources, the pixel dimensions are influenced by the mass spectrometer duty cycle, which, in turn, can be controlled by the automatic gain control (AGC) for each spectrum (pixel). Currently, there is a lack of data-handling software for MSI data generated with continuous ionization sources and AGC. Here, we present ion-to-image (i2i), which is a MATLAB-based application for MSI data …

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Journal of Functional Foods

Resistant potato starch supplementation reduces serum histamine levels in healthy adults with links to attenuated intestinal permeability

Histamine from our diet or gut microbes can trigger gastrointestinal disturbances, and resistant potato starch (RPS) has previously been shown to alleviate these symptoms while increasing levels of health-associated bacteria such as Akkermansia through unknown mechanisms. Post hoc exploratory metabolomic analysis of serum amino acid, amine, and carnitine metabolites in participants consuming 3.5 g/day RPS or placebo (n = 48) was performed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to determine whether RPS positively influences histamine metabolism and related parameters. Histamine levels were significantly reduced by RPS treatment, but histamine-degrading enzyme products were unaffected by RPS. RPS also reduced histamine-secreting Haemophilus and Lactobacillus. Further, metabolites associated with intestinal permeability, including 5-hydroxylysine, acetylspermidine, and short- and …

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Journal of Proteome Research

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david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Marine Drugs

Investigating A Multi-Domain Polyketide Synthase in Amphidinium carterae

Dinoflagellates are unicellular organisms that are implicated in harmful algal blooms (HABs) caused by potent toxins that are produced through polyketide synthase (PKS) pathways. However, the exact mechanisms of toxin synthesis are unknown due to a lack of genomic segregation of fat, toxins, and other PKS-based pathways. To better understand the underlying mechanisms, the actions and expression of the PKS proteins were investigated using the toxic dinoflagellate Amphidinium carterae as a model. Cerulenin, a known ketosynthase inhibitor, was shown to reduce acetate incorporation into all fat classes with the toxins amphidinol and sulpho-amphidinol. The mass spectrometry analysis of cerulenin-reacted synthetic peptides derived from ketosynthase domains of A. carterae multimodular PKS transcripts demonstrated a strong covalent bond that could be localized using collision-induced dissociation. One multi-modular PKS sequence present in all dinoflagellates surveyed to date was found to lack an AT domain in toxin-producing species, indicating trans-acting domains, and was shown by Western blotting to be post-transcriptionally processed. These results demonstrate how toxin synthesis in dinoflagellates can be differentiated from fat synthesis despite common underlying pathway.

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Bioinformatics tools and knowledgebases to assist generating targeted assays for plasma proteomics

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david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Absolute quantitative targeted proteomics assays for plasma proteins

Preclinical and clinical trials require rapid, precise, and multiplexed analytical methods to characterize the complex samples and to allow high-throughput biomarker monitoring with low consumption of sample material. Targeted proteomics has been used to address these challenges when quantifying protein abundances in complex biological matrices. In many of these studies, blood plasma is collected either as the main research or diagnostic sample or in combination with other specimens. Mass spectrometry (MS)-based targeted proteomics using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) or parallel reaction monitoring (PRM) with stable isotope-labeled internal standard (SIS) peptides allows robust characterization of blood plasma protein via absolute quantification. Compared to other commonly used technologies like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), targeted proteomics is faster, more sensitive, and …

david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Cancer immunology research

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david goodlett

david goodlett

University of Victoria

Journal of Proteome Research

Proteomic Evolution from Acute to Post-COVID-19 Conditions

Many COVID-19 survivors have post-COVID-19 conditions, and females are at a higher risk. We sought to determine (1) how protein levels change from acute to post-COVID-19 conditions, (2) whether females have a plasma protein signature different from that of males, and (3) which biological pathways are associated with COVID-19 when compared to restrictive lung disease. We measured protein levels in 74 patients on the day of admission and at 3 and 6 months after diagnosis. We determined protein concentrations by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) using a panel of 269 heavy-labeled peptides. The predicted forced vital capacity (FVC) and diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide (DLCO) were measured by routine pulmonary function testing. Proteins associated with six key lipid-related pathways increased from admission to 3 and 6 months; conversely, proteins related to innate immune …