Localised mass mortality of giant California sea cucumbers in Western Canada

Marine Biology

Published On 2023/7

Mass-mortality events are seldom reported in sea cucumbers (Echinodermata: Holothuria), but here we document a localized mass die-off of giant California sea cucumbers (Apostichopus californicus) in Western Canada from August to October 2021. We recruited volunteer divers to count wasting and healthy sea cucumbers, resulting in observations spanning 500 km of coastline. Reports of dead and wasting sea cucumbers were restricted to Nanoose Bay, BC (Snaw-naw-as First Nation territory, 49°17'N, 124°08'W), with the exception of a single report from Hornby Island, some 55 km away. In Nanoose Bay in 2021, up to 94% of observed sea cucumbers were affected, with healthy sea cucumbers generally observed below 16 m. Following reports of wasting sea cucumbers, population abundance declined sharply. We returned in September 2022 to survey a subset of sites and observed similarly spatially isolated …

Journal

Marine Biology

Published On

2023/7

Volume

170

Issue

7

Page

86

Authors

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Position

Professor of Marine Ecology

H-Index(all)

74

H-Index(since 2020)

53

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Coral reef ecology

Conservation

Marine ecology

Behavioural ecology

University Profile Page

Kathleen Reed

Kathleen Reed

Vancouver Island University

Position

Assessment & Data Librarian ; PhD Student Simon Fraser University

H-Index(all)

5

H-Index(since 2020)

5

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

transgender and non-binary youth

surveillance

privacy

digital humanities

research methods

University Profile Page

Other Articles from authors

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Marine Policy

Military training in the Canadian Pacific: Taking aim at critical habitat or sufficient mitigation of noise pollution impacts?

The Canadian Department of National Defence (DND) has approved the resumption of military activities within ‘Whiskey Hotel’, a 330 km2 area in the Strait of Juan de Fuca that overlaps the critical habitat of endangered Southern Resident Killer Whales in the northeast Pacific Ocean. Multiple Canadian and United States defense organizations use the area for training. The renewal of small-arms training follows a three-year cessation self-imposed by DND to allow a third-party consultant to investigate the risk in-air and underwater training noises pose to marine mammals. Here, we summarize the findings and limitations of the commissioned report and discuss the broader implications for mitigating aquatic noise pollution. The report evaluated the potential for marine mammals to experience injury, behavioral disturbances, and acoustic masking, and proposed mitigation measures (e.g., avoidance zones) to limit …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Fisheries

Studying Kelp Forests of Today to Forecast Ecosystems of the Future

Image 1:(Left) The apical end of an individual giant kelp, highlighting the many gas bladders where leaf-life, textured blades are attached to photosynthesize any light penetrating the surface.(Right) The large, single gas bladder of an individual bull kelp, suspending the many long, smooth blades that trail behind. Photo credit: Shane Gross.Image 2: A school of Black Rockfish Sebastes melanops and a Kelp Perch Brachyistius frenatus swim in the foreground of a forest of giant kelp. While growing at a relatively shallow depth (~ 4 m), this lush kelp forest in Barkley Sound harbored one of the most diverse biological communities in the region. Photo credit: Shane Gross.

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Ethnopolitics

The Plan Nord in Northern Québec, Canada: Pathway to Peace and Prosperity or Powder Keg?

In 2011, the Government of Québec, Canada announced an ambitious twenty-five-year plan to develop the province’s northern region—an area nearly twice the size of France. A centrepiece of the Plan Nord is to integrate the province’s various Indigenous peoples in the sustainable development of the region. However, there are early warning signs of the potential for future conflict as some Indigenous groups mobilized opposition against proposed developments. This raises important questions: could the plan enhance prospects for improved cooperation between Indigenous peoples and non-Indigenous groups or is it likely to engender conflict? Which factors explain the diverging levels of support for the plan between the region’s principal Indigenous peoples (i.e. Cree, Inuit, Innu)? The paper uses the ‘sons of the soil’ (SoS) conflict framework to theorize the mechanisms that can give rise to—or prevent the …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

NeoBiota

Substrate complexity reduces prey consumption in functional response experiments: Implications for extrapolating to the wild

Understanding the density-dependent impacts of an invasive predator is integral for predicting potential consequences for prey populations. Functional response experiments are used to assess the rate of prey consumption and a predator’s ability to search for and consume prey at different resource densities. However, results can be highly context-dependent, limiting their extrapolation to natural ecosystems. Here, we examined how simulated habitat complexity, through the addition of substrate in which prey can escape predation, affects the functional response of invasive European green crabs (Carcinus maenas) foraging on two different bivalve species. Green crabs feeding on varnish clams (Nuttallia obscurata) shifted from a Type II hyperbolic functional response in the absence of substrate to density-independent consumption when prey could bury. Green crabs ate few Japanese littleneck clams (Venerupis philippinarum) under all densities, such that no functional response curve of any type could be produced and their total consumption was always density independent. However, the probability of at least one Japanese littleneck clam being consumed increased significantly with initial clam density and crab claw size across all treatments. At mean crab claw size and compared to trials without substrate, the proportion of varnish clams consumed were 4.2 times smaller when substrate was present, but substrate had a negligible effect (1.2 times) on Japanese littlenecks. The proportion of varnish clams consumed increased with crab claw size and were higher across both substrate conditions than the proportion of Japanese littlenecks …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Biological Invasions

Biotic resistance on muddy shores? Native epibiotic barnacles impose costs on non-native snails

Organisms that settle and grow on other organisms (i.e., epibionts) are often costly to their hosts in terms of locomotion, growth, and/or reproduction. Such costs can potentially result in biotic resistance against invasion when native epibionts colonise non-native hosts, but examples are rare. Here, we examine the extent to which native acorn barnacles Balanus glandula that grow on the non-native Japanese mud snail, Batillaria attramentaria, may offer biotic resistance against this invader. We conducted population surveys, mark-recapture experiments, and behavioural observations in British Columbia, Canada, to measure the effects of barnacles on the movement, growth, and recapture rate, a potential proxy of short-term survival, of mud snails. One-third of mud snails carried barnacles, the weight of which sometimes exceeded the weight of the mud snail carrying them. Barnacle presence, weight, and the ratio of …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Canadian Social Work Review

LE MODÈLE PEVC: RENOUVELER LES PRATIQUES EN PROTECTION DE LA JEUNESSE AFIN D’ASSURER LA SÉCURITÉ DES ENFANTS VIVANT DANS UN CONTEXTE DE VIOLENCE CONJUGALE

S’appuyant sur une recension des écrits et sur l’expérience d’une équipe de recherche, cet article souhaite porter un regard à la fois critique et renouvelé sur l’évaluation des situations de violence conjugale et l’intervention auprès des familles dans les services de protection de l’enfance et de la jeunesse. Pour ce faire, il mettra d’abord en évidence les principaux défis et problèmes dans les pratiques d’intervention auprès de ces familles, à partir de recherches canadiennes et internationales sur le sujet. Par la suite, l’article contextualisera l’émergence du modèle « Protection des enfants en contexte de violence conjugale » (PEVC), un modèle novateur qui vise le renouvellement des pratiques dans le champ de la protection de la jeunesse. Enfin, il se penchera sur les quatre principes d’intervention du modèle et mettra en lumière en quoi ces principes proposent un important …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

PeerJ

Baseline dynamics of Symbiodiniaceae genera and photochemical efficiency in corals from reefs with different thermal histories

Ocean warming and marine heatwaves induced by climate change are impacting coral reefs globally, leading to coral bleaching and mortality. Yet, coral resistance and resilience to warming are not uniform across reef sites and corals can show inter-and intraspecific variability. To understand changes in coral health and to elucidate mechanisms of coral thermal tolerance, baseline data on the dynamics of coral holobiont performance under non-stressed conditions are needed. We monitored the seasonal dynamics of algal symbionts (family Symbiodiniaceae) hosted by corals from a chronically warmed and thermally variable reef compared to a thermally stable reef in southern Taiwan over 15 months. We assessed the genera and photochemical efficiency of Symbiodiniaceae in three coral species: Acropora nana, Pocillopora acuta, and Porites lutea. Both Durusdinium and Cladocopium were present in all coral species at both reef sites across all seasons, but general trends in their detection (based on qPCR cycle) varied between sites and among species. Photochemical efficiency (ie, maximum quantum yield; F v/F m) was relatively similar between reef sites but differed consistently among species; no clear evidence of seasonal trends in F v/F m was found. Quantifying natural Symbiodiniaceae dynamics can help facilitate a more comprehensive interpretation of thermal tolerance response as well as plasticity potential of the coral holobiont.

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest

Complexités identitaires et l’éducation en contexte minoritaire francophone

Grâce à la mobilisation politique et juridique prolongée et concertée de leurs membres, les communautés francophones en situation minoritaire (CFSM) ont accès aux services et à l’école en français au Canada (Landry, Allard et Deveau, 2007). Par ailleurs, au Canada, une politique de multiculturalisme a également été établie pour gérer la diversité qui existe au pays (Forbes, 2019). Ici comme ailleurs, la montée de mouvements politiques suprémacistes remet en question l’existence de politiques qui peuvent assurer la possibilité de bien coexister (Tremblay, 2018). De plus, le multiculturalisme est souvent critiqué pour ne pas avoir offert de réponse à des problèmes sociaux tels que celui du racisme systémique (Abu-Laban et Nath, 2020; Haque, 2012; Hogarth et Fletcher, 2018; James, 2010; Plaut, et al., 2018; Madibbo, 2021). Ces politiques et ces luttes juridiques ont un impact sur les relations entre les …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Politics, Groups, and Identities

The power of numbers: how majority/minority status affects media coverage and framing of Indigenous contentious politics in Canada

News media perform an important role in shaping how Canadian society views Indigenous peoples and issues. They are rarely passive, neutral bystanders, as media routinely employ a particular set of frames (e.g., criminality, economic burden, threats to unity, promotion of social justice) when covering Indigenous stories. We explore how the use of such frames is influenced by dynamics of power as they relate to majority/minority linguistic differences. Through a controlled comparison, we examine the 2008–2019 media coverage of Indigenous responses to Ontario’s Far North Act and Québec’s Plan Nord – both of which concerned resource development on or near Indigenous territory. We find that where media serve the linguistic majority, they are much more likely to frame Indigenous responses to development plans as a threat to national unity. In contrast, where media serve the linguistic minority, they are …

Kathleen Reed

Kathleen Reed

Vancouver Island University

Sociological Perspectives

Moral Panic and Electric Micromobilities: Seeking Space for Mobility Justice

This article makes the case that electric micromobilities (EMMs) are the site of a moral panic and employs the lens of mobility justice to explain it. Through analysis of scholarly and media discourse, interviews with, and social media content produced by, EMM riders (eriders), and the auto ethnographic experiences of the lead author as an electric unicycle rider in daily life, as a participant in online and offline “erider” communities, and as a food delivery worker, we reinforce the conclusion that alternate mobilities face an uphill battle in gaining legitimacy and inclusion in transportation policy and infrastructure. While this is not a new finding—alternate mobilities have a long history of being demonized and excluded—this article offers insight into how individuals who find themselves unwitting scapegoats in conflicts over public space consciously engage in deliberate actions to resist EMM panic and achieve greater …

Kathleen Reed

Kathleen Reed

Vancouver Island University

Elder abuse in the lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender plus communities (Evidence Summary)

This evidence brief summarizes the literature on the abuse of older adults who identify as 2SLGBT+(Two-Spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer plus) published in the past decade (2013-2023), and discusses policy implications.

Kathleen Reed

Kathleen Reed

Vancouver Island University

Evidence Brief: Elder Abuse in the 2SLGBTQ+ Community

This knowledge synthesis reports on the literature on the abuse of older adults who identify as 2SLGBT+ (Two-Spirit, lesbian, gay, bisexual, trans, queer plus) published in the past decade (2013-2023). Although there is not a great deal of literature prior to 2013, what we do have indicates that 2SLGBT+ older adults face particular vulnerabilities that can make them experience elder abuse in ways that are specific to their communities and that can present additional barriers to their health and well-being. Objectives (1) synthesize existing knowledge related to 2SLGBTQ+ elder abuse and determine knowledge gaps (2) identify and evaluate the nature of the academic literature, including methodologies and data sources; (3) create an evidence-based agenda for future research and advocacy in the area of 2SLGBTQ+ elder abuse; and (4) where evidence and data are lacking, our work will highlight the gaps in order to help shape future data policies and research agendas.

Kathleen Reed

Kathleen Reed

Vancouver Island University

A scoping review of good methodological practices in research involving transgender, non-binary, and two-spirit youth

Transgender, non-binary, two-spirit, and other gender non-conforming (GNC) youth have been the focus of increasing scholarly attention over the past decade. A scoping review method was applied to this growing body of literature to identify good practices and important themes in conducting research with GNC youth. A body of non-clinical, English-language scholarship was identified utilizing keywords relating to GNC youth, methods, and methodologies via searches in 33 databases, 3 specific journals, and other online sources. These works were then analyzed for good practices, with themes emerging related to institutional review boards (IRBs) and assent/consent, advisory boards and community involvement, recruitment, identity descriptions, adultism, youth agency and voice, intersectionality, knowledge mobilization, and researcher reflexivity.

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Ecosphere

Effects of sea cucumber fishing on tropical seagrass productivity

Fishing can drive major ecological change in coastal ecosystems and is typically examined through top‐down trophic impacts. However, the massive removal of biomass can also disrupt key ecological bottom‐up processes, though how these effects shape ecosystems is poorly understood. Here, we examined the ecological roles of two species of commercially exploited sea cucumbers thought to promote primary productivity in nutrient‐poor environments through nutrient provisioning and sediment processing. Using a large‐scale field experiment, we tested whether simulated sea cucumber fishing affected seagrass productivity in a natural system comprising reef and seagrass patches that varied in abundance of vertebrate nutrient providers (i.e., fishes). Our findings were scale‐ and metric‐specific: while we could not detect a change in patch‐level seagrass productivity in response to simulated sea cucumber …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Cahiers franco-canadiens de l'Ouest

«ARKK! Mes élèves parlent en anglais!»: réflexions sur trois parcours professionnels et personnels

Dans le cadre de cet article, trois chercheuses-praticiennes partagent une réflexion développée lors d’une étude de soi menée dans le contexte universitaire de la formation initiale à l’enseignement du/en français en milieu minoritaire. À travers des vignettes autoethnographiques et en pensant avec la théorie de la perspective bilingue du bilinguisme, elles expliquent comment elles en sont arrivées à mieux comprendre leurs réactions respectives par rapport à l’utilisation de l’anglais dans des contextes d’éducation en français. En adoptant une démarche réflexive, notamment au sujet d’un sentiment intense d’aversion (« ARKK! ») ressenti lors du recours à l’anglais dans ces contextes d’éducation en français, les trois auteures expliquent comment elles ont réussi à mieux comprendre ce sentiment. C’est à travers leurs conversations entre amies critiques qu’elles ont notamment pu repenser leurs pratiques …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Comparative & International Education

Apprentissage de et par le territoire: réflexion de trois étudiantes allochtones à la formation initiale en Colombie-Britannique.

Dans le cadre de cet article, trois étudiantes-apprenantes-chercheuses allochtones partagent leur apprentissage de et par le territoire lors de leur premier semestre à la formation des enseignant· es à l’Université Simon-Fraser. À l’aide d’une approche méthodologique de l’étude de soi ancrée dans une enquête transformatrice (Stanger et Tanaka, 2017), elles ont documenté leurs observations d’apprentissage tout au long d’un semestre pour en faire ressortir leurs moments forts par la création d’artéfacts dans un portfolio numérique. Leurs observations étaient guidées par des questions, des lectures et des activités hebdomadaires basées sur des chercheur· ses allochtones et autochtones. Dans leurs conclusions, elles précisent en quoi l’expérience d’apprentissage de et par le territoire dans ce premier semestre de la formation initiale offre une voie vers la réconciliation entre les personnes allochtones et …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

Conservation Letters

Management thresholds shift under the influence of multiple stressors: Eelgrass meadows as a case study

As human activities increase in intensity and extent, ecosystems face growing threats from multiple stressors. Successful management requires identifying measurable targets, which is challenging because of data limitations, nonlinear ecosystem responses, and potentially shifting targets under multiple stressors. To identify critical management values and determine whether these values shift in the presence of multiple stressors, we use eelgrass (Zostera marina) meadows as a model system. We reviewed 20 studies that measured the effects of light and temperature on eelgrass performance, providing 109 unique study–site–treatment combinations. We modeled the interactive effect of temperature and light on eelgrass population growth rate (i.e., lateral shoot production rates) using a hierarchical generalized additive model and predicted population growth rates across a range of light levels and temperatures. We …

Isabelle M Côté

Isabelle M Côté

Simon Fraser University

A global biological conservation horizon scan of issues for 2023

We present the results of our 14th horizon scan of issues we expect to influence biological conservation in the future. From an initial set of 102 topics, our global panel of 30 scientists and practitioners identified 15 issues we consider most urgent for societies worldwide to address. Issues are novel within biological conservation or represent a substantial positive or negative step change at global or regional scales. Issues such as submerged artificial light fisheries and accelerating upper ocean currents could have profound negative impacts on marine or coastal ecosystems. We also identified potentially positive technological advances, including energy production and storage, improved fertilisation methods, and expansion of biodegradable materials. If effectively managed, these technologies could realise future benefits for biological diversity.

Other articles from Marine Biology journal

Carlos Riquelme

Carlos Riquelme

Universidad de Antofagasta

Marine Biology

In-silico characterization of Δ4 and Δ5 desaturases in Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Perkinsus marinus, symbiont and parasitic organisms’ similarities

Dinoflagellates are protists of high ecological interest due to their ability to produce compounds with biotechnological utility, such as polyunsaturated fatty acids. Two dinoflagellates, Symbiodinium microadriaticum and Perkinsus marinus, play radically different ecological roles. While S. microadriaticum contributes to coral survival by providing nutrients, P. marinus has become a pathogen in oyster culture, causing economic losses. Despite the differences in their ecological role, the mechanism associated which these two organisms have been linked to the production of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Desaturase enzymes play a crucial role in the synthesis of unsaturated fatty acids through the addition of double bonds, especially the Δ4 and Δ5 desaturase enzymes, which are important to producing docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). However, despite their great potential and …

Raquel Xavier

Raquel Xavier

Universidade do Porto

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Assessing diets of marine fauna associated with emerging zoantharian habitats in the Canary Islands

Population outbreaks of zoantharians in shallow water reefs have been observed globally, including intertidal and subtidal sites in the Canary Islands. This study investigated how zoantharians might be integrating into the local trophic network. For that purpose, we assessed the feeding patterns of common species in zoantharian-dominated habitats, focusing on finding consumers of Zoanthus pulchellus and Palythoa caribaeorum. Through DNA-barcoding and metabarcoding, the gut contents of 11 predatory species were analysed, aiming to characterize their diets and explore local species feeding on zoantharians. Analyses of diet revealed a diverse range of food items and trophic positions of some of the most common and frequent marine species in the archipelago. Furthermore, based on previous observations on the different impacts of Z. pulchellus and P. caribaeorum on shallow benthic ecosystems of the …

olga kardailsky

olga kardailsky

University of Otago

Marine Biology

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Anne E. Wiley

Anne E. Wiley

University of Akron

Marine Biology

Carotenoid skin ornaments as flexible indicators of male foraging behavior in a marine predator: Variation among Mexican colonies of brown booby (Sula leucogaster)

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Katherine Clegg Smith

Katherine Clegg Smith

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F. Lizon

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José Alfredo Castillo-Guerrero

José Alfredo Castillo-Guerrero

Universidad de Guadalajara

Marine Biology

Parental duties and foraging strategies of a tropical pelagic seabird (Phaethon aethereus, Aves: Phaethontidae) during the breeding season

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Taeho Kim

Taeho Kim

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Marine Biology

Synergistic effects of Ultraviolet radiation and corrosion on Zr alloys

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Eleonora Puccinelli

Eleonora Puccinelli

Université de Bretagne Occidentale

Marine Biology

Short-term temporal variability in offshore benthic biodiversity across hydrographic regions at a sub-Antarctic archipelago

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Hannah Vander Zanden

Hannah Vander Zanden

University of Florida

Marine Biology

Isotopic niche partitioning in a multi-species assemblage

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Elise M. J. Laetz

Elise M. J. Laetz

Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

Marine Biology

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Pippa Moore

Pippa Moore

Newcastle University

Marine Biology

Spatiotemporal variability in the structure and diversity of understory faunal assemblages associated with the kelp Eisenia cokeri (Laminariales) in Peru

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Adalto Bianchini

Adalto Bianchini

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande

Marine Biology

No coral recovery three years after a major bleaching event in reefs in the Southwestern Atlantic refugium

Mass bleaching events are growing in duration and intensity. Besides causing extensive mortality, the progressively shorter time between events disrupts the ability of reefs to recover. The unique reefs of the Southwestern Atlantic are often considered climate refugia as they have suffered less bleaching-related mortality when compared to Indo–Pacific and Caribbean reefs. However, their recovery capacity still requires investigation. In 2019, an unprecedented heatwave triggered the most severe bleaching episode recorded for Southwestern Atlantic reefs. Therefore, this study aimed to (i) document the bleaching incidence and mortality during the heatwave, and (ii) assess coral recovery over 3 years. We measured bleaching incidence and monitored coral cover through surveys in three Southern Bahia (central Brazilian coast) reefs before, during and after thermal stress. Our findings show that coral assemblages …

Erik Muxagata

Erik Muxagata

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande

Marine Biology

Cephalopod paralarvae from the southeast–south Brazilian outer shelf and slope

Cephalopod paralarvae were collected in the southeast–south Brazilian outer shelf and continental slope (24°–34°S) from 2009 to 2015 to evaluate their distribution and abundance in relation to water masses during Autumn and Spring seasons. A total of 801 paralarvae were caught with Bongo nets (500 µm mesh) in oblique tows at sample depths of up to 250 m. Fourteen families, 22 genera, and 15 species were identified. The most abundant families were Argonautidae (40.1%), Ommastrephidae (31%), and Enoploteuthidae (23.7%). The highest abundances were recorded on Autumn 2014 (667 ind 1000 m−3) and Argonauta nodosus was the most abundant species in the study area (437 ind 1000 m−3). Ommastrephes sp., Illex argentinus, and Abralia spp. paralarvae were also abundant (124, 131, and 135 ind 1000 m−3, respectively) during Spring 2009, 2010, and 2014, respectively. These species were …

Joshua Patterson

Joshua Patterson

University of Florida

Marine Biology

Implications of changing Caribbean coral reefs on Diadema antillarum larvae settlement

Tropical western Atlantic reefs have gradually shifted from being dominated by corals to being mainly covered by macroalgae. The mass-mortality of the sea urchin Diadema antillarum in the 80s and the slow to non-existent recovery exacerbated this shift. Chemical cues associated with these reefs are expected to have shifted too with potential negative effects on larval recruitment, possibly limiting recovery of important species like D. antillarum. In this study, we tested the effects of naturally derived biofilm and macroalgae species native to Caribbean coral reefs on the settlement rate of cultured D. antillarum larvae in two separate experiments. Crustose coralline algae (CCA) were included in both experiments, making it possible to compare settlement rates from both experiments. A biofilm of one week old yielded significantly lower settlement rates compared to two, four, and six weeks old biofilm and the highest …

Stephen Votier

Stephen Votier

Heriot-Watt University

Marine Biology

From route to dive: multi-scale habitat selection in a foraging tropical seabird

Comprehending how environmental variability shapes foraging behaviour across habitats is key to unlocking insights into consumer ecology. Seabirds breeding at high latitudes are exemplars of how marine consumers can adapt their behaviours to make use of predictable foraging opportunities, but prey tends to be less predictable in tropical oceanic ecosystems and may require alternative foraging behaviours. Here we used GPS and time-depth recorder loggers to investigate the foraging behaviour of central placed adult red-footed boobies (Sula sula rubripes), a tropical seabird that forages in oceanic waters via diving, or by capturing aerial prey such as flying fish in flight. Dive bout dynamics revealed that red-footed boobies appeared to exploit denser, but more sparsely distributed prey patches when diving further from the colony. Furthermore, although we found no evidence of environmentally driven habitat …

Fadia Tala

Fadia Tala

Universidad Católica del Norte

Marine Biology

Seasonal growth rates of gooseneck barnacles (Lepas spp.): Proxies for floating time of rafts in marine ecosystems

Gooseneck barnacles of the genus Lepas are sessile crustaceans settling and growing on free-floating substrata. They can be used as indicators for floating time of objects such as plastic, algae, airplane wrecks or human corpses. Precise estimates of floating time are only possible when accurate growth rates of Lepas are known. However, many factors modulate the growth of these crustaceans, making floating time estimates difficult. In this study, we measured growth rates of L. australis and L. anatifera in the Central Humboldt Current System over two consecutive summer and winter seasons. Growth patterns were best described by a logistic growth curve. Using the asymptotic value (maximum size) for each species and each season, we selected the linear phase of growth to fit simple predictive linear models to estimate floating time. Growth rates of L. anatifera were almost twice as high in the warmer summer …

Kathryn Van Alstyne

Kathryn Van Alstyne

Western Washington University

Marine Biology

Seasonal effects of short-term stress on susceptibility to herbivores and DMSP induction in the intertidal green alga Ulva fenestrata

When emersed, intertidal seaweeds experience rapid changes in environmental conditions. On warm sunny days, seaweeds can desiccate soon after emersion. On rainy days or in areas with freshwater inputs, they may experience rapid drops in salinity. To determine whether one low tide’s exposure to environmental stress alters seaweed growth, palatability to herbivores, and dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) concentrations, we exposed Ulva fenestrata to desiccation and hyposaline conditions for 3 h in summer and winter. Two days later, summer desiccation decreased growth, consumption by Lacuna vincta, and DMSP by 71%, 83%, and 67%, relative to controls. Winter desiccation reduced DMSP by 19% and did not affect growth or L. vincta feeding. Summer hyposaline conditions increased growth by 75% but did not affect L. vincta grazing or DMSP, whereas winter hyposaline conditions reduced growth by …

Charlie Huveneers

Charlie Huveneers

Flinders University

Marine Biology

Integrated approach to assess the spatio-temporal foraging dynamics of a temperate marine predator, the copper shark (Carcharhinus brachyurus)

Large-bodied sharks can be critical for coupling disparate habitats and food webs, which is considered central for ecosystem stability. Understanding the role of sharks and their associated predator–prey relationships across spatial scales is also integral to the development of multi-species ecosystem models. A combined stomach content (n = 212) and multi-tissue stable isotope (fast [liver; n = 101] vs slow turnover [muscle; n = 108]) approach was used to investigate the feeding ecology of the copper shark (Carcharhinus brachyurus) in the temperate waters of Southern Australia. Sharks were sampled from fishery catches over 3 years, during the austral spring–summer seasons and across three distinct regions. Stomach content analysis identified the copper shark as a generalist predator that consumes a diverse prey base dominated by Sepia novaehollandiae, Sepioteuthis australis, and Sardinops sagax …

Mustafa Sarı

Mustafa Sarı

Yildiz Teknik Üniversitesi

Marine Biology

Discovering new living Pinna nobilis populations in the Sea of Marmara

Fan mussel (Pinna nobilis) is one of the largest bivalve species in the Mediterranean Sea. The situation of the species is critical as it faces widespread mass mortality attributed to pathogens in various parts of the Mediterranean Sea. The Sea of Marmara (SoM) offers a unique environment for fan mussel populations, with some areas hosting alive populations. This study aims to explore and describe new P. nobilis populations in the SoM that are known to be not affected by mortality. An area of 28,200 m2 at 47 stations along the 105 km coastline in the southern part of the SoM was explored using underwater visual transects. A total of 544 alive fan mussels were recorded during the underwater surveys, ranging in total shell height from 11.8 to 31.4 cm. The mean density was estimated as 5.3 ind 100 m−2 although maxima of 18.8 ind 100 m−2 were recorded in some stations. These density hotspots were distributed …