Hydrodeoxygenation and hydrocracking of oxygenated compounds over CuPd/γ-Al2O3–ZSM-5 catalyst

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Published On 2021/8

Biomass is one of the most important renewable energy resources to produce sustainable liquid fuel. This study presents the process of hydrodeoxygenation/hydrocracking on a model of oxygenated compounds such as fatty acid methyl esters using a bifunctional catalyst that contains a metallic function based on copper and palladium and an acid function type ZMS-5. Hydrocracking of methyl esters on the bifunctional catalyst CuPd/γ-Al2O3–ZSM-5 realized on a fix bed reactor led to obtaining of n-alkanes, iso-alkanes, saturated and aromatic cyclic hydrocarbons with 9 to 18 carbon atoms. The conversion reach 100% value at temperature higher than 350 °C. The yield in n-alkanes varies with a maximum at temperature of 325 °C, meanwhile, the yield in iso-alkanes remains approx. constant. The cyclization and aromatization reactions are favored at temperatures higher than 350 °C.

Journal

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Published On

2021/8

Volume

133

Page

1013-1026

Authors

Ion Bolocan

Ion Bolocan

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Position

Professor of Organic Chemistry

H-Index(all)

8

H-Index(since 2020)

6

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Chemical Engineering

Chemistry

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Position

Conferentiar

H-Index(all)

6

H-Index(since 2020)

6

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Inginerie chimica

Chimie

Ingineria mediului

Cataliza

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Position

H-Index(all)

6

H-Index(since 2020)

6

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Other Articles from authors

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Modification of Oxygen Production of Algal Cells in the Presence of O-chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile, Biodegradation in the Eco-Friendly Way

Chemical substances such us CS-gas used in military operations are chemical compounds that present a series of peculiarities that affect the ecosystem by disrupting the ecological balance. This study evaluated the toxicological character of O-chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile (CBM),(substance present in CS-gas) on the algae Cholrella sp. and analyzed the toxicity limit and the response of the microorganism to the oxidative stress caused by this substance. In order to under-stand the toxicological mechanisms of CBM on algal culture, a series of parameters were analyzed such as: the cell growth curve, the average specific growth rate (µ), percent inhibition in yield (I%), dry cell weight (DCW), percent viability and productivity of algal biomass flocculation activity (FA), change in oxygen production. The content of chlorophyll pigments, was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) fluorescence spectroscopy and analysis of the surface structure of algal cells by SEM spectroscopy. This study aims to provide fundamental data for understanding the toxicity of CBM to aquatic organisms and provides a basis for assessing the potential for impact on aquatic ecosystems. The results obtained could be taken into account in the management of the decontamination of the affected areas.

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Modification of Oxygen Production of Algal Cells in the Presence of O-chlorobenzylidene Malononitrile, Biodegradation in the Eco-Friendly Way

Chemical substances such us CS-gas used in military operations are chemical compounds that present a series of peculiarities that affect the ecosystem by disrupting the ecological balance. This study evaluated the toxicological character of O-chlorobenzylidenemalonitrile (CBM),(substance present in CS-gas) on the algae Cholrella sp. and analyzed the toxicity limit and the response of the microorganism to the oxidative stress caused by this substance. In order to under-stand the toxicological mechanisms of CBM on algal culture, a series of parameters were analyzed such as: the cell growth curve, the average specific growth rate (µ), percent inhibition in yield (I%), dry cell weight (DCW), percent viability and productivity of algal biomass flocculation activity (FA), change in oxygen production. The content of chlorophyll pigments, was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) fluorescence spectroscopy and analysis of the surface structure of algal cells by SEM spectroscopy. This study aims to provide fundamental data for understanding the toxicity of CBM to aquatic organisms and provides a basis for assessing the potential for impact on aquatic ecosystems. The results obtained could be taken into account in the management of the decontamination of the affected areas.

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Toxics

Synthesis, Purity Check, Hydrolysis and Removal of o-Chlorobenzyliden Malononitrile (CBM) by Biological Selective Media

The removal yield of organic substances present in water depends on the environmental conditions, on the chemical composition of the water and on the chemical substance dissolved in the water, which constitutes the substrate of the metabolic activities of the microalgae that use these substances in the biochemical reactions of cellular enzyme complexes. o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS, to use its military designation) was synthesized in-house, for research purposes, by a condensing reaction between o-chlorobenzaldehide and malononitrilein the presence of diethylamine. The detection, identification and confirmation of o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (coded CBM in this experimental study) was performed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the purity of CBM was 99%. The biodegradation capacity in the samples that contained the biological suspension, after 24 h and 96 h of incubation, was determined via GC-MS analysis, and no evidence of the presence of CBM or some metabolites of CBM was detected. In the parallel samples, a hydrolysis process of CBM at room temperature, without biological treatment, revealed two main metabolites, malononitrile and o-chlorobenzaldehyde, respectively. This study is focused on evaluating the biodegradation capacity of o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile in the presence of a biological material, culture of Chlorella sp., in comparison with a classical hydrolysis process. The tests performed indicate that the suspension of Chlorella sp. consumed the entire amount of CBM and metabolites from the analyzed samples. The tests prove that the biological material can be …

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Toxics

Synthesis, Purity Check, Hydrolysis and Removal of o-Chlorobenzyliden Malononitrile (CBM) by Biological Selective Media

The removal yield of organic substances present in water depends on the environmental conditions, on the chemical composition of the water and on the chemical substance dissolved in the water, which constitutes the substrate of the metabolic activities of the microalgae that use these substances in the biochemical reactions of cellular enzyme complexes. o-Chlorobenzylidene malononitrile (CS, to use its military designation) was synthesized in-house, for research purposes, by a condensing reaction between o-chlorobenzaldehide and malononitrilein the presence of diethylamine. The detection, identification and confirmation of o-chlorobenzylidenemalononitrile (coded CBM in this experimental study) was performed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and the purity of CBM was 99%. The biodegradation capacity in the samples that contained the biological suspension, after 24 h and 96 h of incubation, was determined via GC-MS analysis, and no evidence of the presence of CBM or some metabolites of CBM was detected. In the parallel samples, a hydrolysis process of CBM at room temperature, without biological treatment, revealed two main metabolites, malononitrile and o-chlorobenzaldehyde, respectively. This study is focused on evaluating the biodegradation capacity of o-chlorobenzylidene malononitrile in the presence of a biological material, culture of Chlorella sp., in comparison with a classical hydrolysis process. The tests performed indicate that the suspension of Chlorella sp. consumed the entire amount of CBM and metabolites from the analyzed samples. The tests prove that the biological material can be …

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Materials

Black tea waste as green adsorbent for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions

The aim of the study was to prepare effective low-cost green adsorbents based on spent black tea leaves for the removal of nitrate ions from aqueous solutions. These adsorbents were obtained either by thermally treating spent tea to produce biochar (UBT-TT), or by employing the untreated tea waste (UBT) to obtain convenient bio-sorbents. The adsorbents were characterized before and after adsorption by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersed X-ray analysis (EDX), Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The experimental conditions, such as pH, temperature, and nitrate ions concentration were studied to evaluate the interaction of nitrates with adsorbents and the potential of the adsorbents for the nitrate removal from synthetic solutions. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were applied to derive the adsorption parameters based on the obtained data. The maximum adsorption intakes for UBT and UBT-TT were 59.44 mg/g and 61.425 mg/g, respectively. The data obtained from this study were best fitted to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm applied to equilibrium (the values R2 = 0.9431 for UBT and R2 = 0.9414 for UBT-TT), this assuming the multi-layer adsorption onto a surface with a finite number of sites. The Freundlich isotherm model could explain the adsorption mechanism. These results indicated that UBT and UBT-TT could serve as novel biowaste and low-cost materials for the removal of nitrate ions from aqueous solutions.

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Materials

Black tea waste as green adsorbent for nitrate removal from aqueous solutions

The aim of the study was to prepare effective low-cost green adsorbents based on spent black tea leaves for the removal of nitrate ions from aqueous solutions. These adsorbents were obtained either by thermally treating spent tea to produce biochar (UBT-TT), or by employing the untreated tea waste (UBT) to obtain convenient bio-sorbents. The adsorbents were characterized before and after adsorption by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersed X-ray analysis (EDX), Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). The experimental conditions, such as pH, temperature, and nitrate ions concentration were studied to evaluate the interaction of nitrates with adsorbents and the potential of the adsorbents for the nitrate removal from synthetic solutions. The Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin isotherms were applied to derive the adsorption parameters based on the obtained data. The maximum adsorption intakes for UBT and UBT-TT were 59.44 mg/g and 61.425 mg/g, respectively. The data obtained from this study were best fitted to the Freundlich adsorption isotherm applied to equilibrium (the values R2 = 0.9431 for UBT and R2 = 0.9414 for UBT-TT), this assuming the multi-layer adsorption onto a surface with a finite number of sites. The Freundlich isotherm model could explain the adsorption mechanism. These results indicated that UBT and UBT-TT could serve as novel biowaste and low-cost materials for the removal of nitrate ions from aqueous solutions.

Ion Bolocan

Ion Bolocan

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Chemical Industry & Chemical Engineering Quarterly

The reduction of FCCU afterburning through process optimization and regenerator revamping

Operating the fluid catalytic cracking unit (FCCU) in afterburning conditions can increase the regenerator temperatures above the metallurgical design leading to mechanical failures of the cyclones and plenum chamber. This paper presents the methodology applied in a commercial FCCU to investigate the afterburning causes and the technical solutions that can be implemented to reduce the afterburning. Thus, by evaluating the regenerator temperature profile, regenerator as-build design, and the internals mechanical status, it was concluded that the main cause of afterburning was the non-uniform distribution and mixing of air and catalyst. The industrial results showed that optimizing the catalyst bed level, stripping steam, reaction temperature, and equilibrium catalyst (e-cat) activity reduced the afterburning by 39%. Other process parameters such as feed preheat temperature, slurry recycling, and excess oxygen did not significantly influence afterburning because of air and catalyst maldistribution. Revamping the regenerator to assure a symmetrical layout of cyclones reduced the afterburning by 86%, increased the fines retention in FCCU inventory, and provided a better regeneration of the spent e-cat. The reduction of operating temperatures at around 701 C removed the risk of catalyst thermal deactivation, and therefore the e-cat activity was increased by 10.2 wt.%.

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Adsorption of p-nitrophenol onto activated carbon prepared from fir sawdust: isotherm studies and error analysis

Fir sawdust was employed for the preparation of activated carbons by potassium hydroxide (KOH), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) activations. The three adsorbents have been abbreviated BAC, AAC and SAC. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption experiments were performed at 77 K to determine the physical surface properties of these three adsorbents. The chemical properties were depicted by the point of zero charge (pHPZC) measurement and by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. Characterization of the fir sawdust activated carbons suggests that their structures are highly dependent on the activation agent molecules. In this research, in order to evaluate the performances of the fir sawdust activated carbons, a series of batch experiments were conducted for the adsorption of p-nitrophenol from aqueous solution at initial concentrations in range of 50–250 mg/L. The equilibrium data …

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Adsorption of p-nitrophenol onto activated carbon prepared from fir sawdust: isotherm studies and error analysis

Fir sawdust was employed for the preparation of activated carbons by potassium hydroxide (KOH), phosphoric acid (H3PO4) and zinc chloride (ZnCl2) activations. The three adsorbents have been abbreviated BAC, AAC and SAC. The nitrogen adsorption–desorption experiments were performed at 77 K to determine the physical surface properties of these three adsorbents. The chemical properties were depicted by the point of zero charge (pHPZC) measurement and by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectra. Characterization of the fir sawdust activated carbons suggests that their structures are highly dependent on the activation agent molecules. In this research, in order to evaluate the performances of the fir sawdust activated carbons, a series of batch experiments were conducted for the adsorption of p-nitrophenol from aqueous solution at initial concentrations in range of 50–250 mg/L. The equilibrium data …

Ion Bolocan

Ion Bolocan

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

ChemistrySelect

Rhenium Effect on the Performance of CoMoNi/γ‐Al2O3 Catalyst in Thiophene Hydrodesulphurization. Performance Evaluation and Process Kinetics

The rhenium effect on the performance of CoMoNi/γ‐Al2O3 catalyst was studied in thiophene hydrodesulphurization. The unsulfided and freshly sulfided catalysts were characterized by N2 adsorption‐desorption, IR spectroscopy, X‐ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and total acidity. The effects of reaction temperature, pressure, and liquid hourly space velocity (LHSV) on thiophene HDS performance shown that the activity of the CoMoNiRe/γ‐Al2O3 catalyst for thiophene HDS was superior to that of the CoMoNi/γ‐Al2O catalyst, which was mainly ascribed to the higher acidic functional groups. Based on Langmuir‐Hinshelwood approach, a kinetic model for thiophene HDS over both catalysts have been developed. In this respect, two mechanisms have been considered, one hypothesizing that hydrogen is adsorbed on different active centers than thiophene (two‐centers mechanism) and the other considering …

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

A study on the alkylation of m-cresol with 1-decene over mesoporous silica supported tungstophosphoric acid (HPW)

Linear alkylcresols were synthesized in high yield by the alkylation of m-cresols with 1-decene in the presence of 25%HPW/SBA-15 catalyst. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were investigated by means of N2 adsorption/desorption measurements (textural properties: surface area, pore volume and average pore diameter) and thermal desorption of diethyl-amine (acidity and the acid strength distribution). HPW-loaded acid as well as the SBA-15 support displayed a mesoporous structure. The effects of the reaction time and the catalyst amount on the reaction were studied. The main monitored parameters were the conversion of m-cresol, yield of decylcresol isomers (ortho- and para-) and yield of polyakylated cresol. The results indicates that 25%HPW/SBA-15 catalyst has high catalytic activity, with the m-cresol conversion of 93.8% , at 160 °C with a reaction time of 150 min and a catalyst loading of 0.5 …

Daniela Popovici

Daniela Popovici

Universitatea Petrol-Gaze din Ploiesti

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

A study on the alkylation of m-cresol with 1-decene over mesoporous silica supported tungstophosphoric acid (HPW)

Linear alkylcresols were synthesized in high yield by the alkylation of m-cresols with 1-decene in the presence of 25%HPW/SBA-15 catalyst. The physicochemical properties of the catalyst were investigated by means of N2 adsorption/desorption measurements (textural properties: surface area, pore volume and average pore diameter) and thermal desorption of diethyl-amine (acidity and the acid strength distribution). HPW-loaded acid as well as the SBA-15 support displayed a mesoporous structure. The effects of the reaction time and the catalyst amount on the reaction were studied. The main monitored parameters were the conversion of m-cresol, yield of decylcresol isomers (ortho- and para-) and yield of polyakylated cresol. The results indicates that 25%HPW/SBA-15 catalyst has high catalytic activity, with the m-cresol conversion of 93.8% , at 160 °C with a reaction time of 150 min and a catalyst loading of 0.5 …

Other articles from Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis journal

Ady Mara Rachman Mara

Ady Mara Rachman Mara

Universitas Sriwijaya

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Hydrodeoxygenation of refined palm kernel oil (RPKO) into bio-jet fuel using Mo/H-ZSM-5 catalysts

This research is focused to study the effect of the Mo-impregnated amount on H-ZSM-5 towards its activity and selectivity in hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction for refined palm kernel oil (RPKO) into bio-jet fuel. The RPKO sample was degummed, bleached, and then analyzed using GC–MS. Impregnation of Mo metal was done using ammonium heptamolybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O) as a precursor solution with initial Mo contents of 5, 10, and 15 wt% towards H-ZSM-5 weight to produce 5-Mo/Z, 10-Mo/Z, and 15-Mo/Zy. The catalysts were characterized using FT-IR, XRD, SEM–EDX, nitrogen desorption with Brunnauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Teller (BJH) equation, and NH3-TPD. The catalyst activity test was applied at HDO for RPKO using a semi-flow double reactor in a one-pot system. The HDO liquid product was analyzed using GC–MS. The catalyst which produced the highest yield of liquid …

Karna Wijaya

Karna Wijaya

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Development of chromium-impregnated sulfated silica as a mesoporous catalyst in the production of biogasoline from used cooking oil via a hydrocracking process

The production of biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels has been a significant challenge until recently. The present work focuses on hydrocracking used cooking oil (UCO) into biogasoline over chromium impregnated on a sulfated mesoporous silica catalyst. The effects of varying sulfuric acid concentration, calcination temperature, and impregnated chromium content were systematically studied in the synthesis process employing TEOS and NaHCO3 by sol–gel method. A sulfuric acid concentration of 2 M and calcination temperature of 600 °C produced an SO4–SiO2 catalyst with the best acidity of 8.46 mmol g−1. Variation of chromium content (wt%) of 1% had Cr/SO4–SiO2 catalyst with the best acidity of 8.57 mmol g−1. SiO2, SS 2–600, and Cr-SS 1 catalysts were tested for their performance in the hydrocracking of UCO into biogasoline at an optimum temperature of 450 °C, H2 gas flow rate of 20 mL min−1 …

Leonardo Palmisano

Leonardo Palmisano

Università degli Studi di Palermo

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Photocatalytic degradation of naproxen in water under solar irradiation in the presence of globular NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

Globular NiFe2O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple sol–gel method. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the material have been thoroughly characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area, and porosity analysis. Finally, NiFe2O4 has been tested for the photocatalytic degradation of naproxen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely present in water effluents, under natural solar light irradiation and under several experimental conditions. In particular, the beneficial effect of small H2O2 amounts added to the photocatalytic suspension has been highlighted. The kinetic model reveals that under solar irradiation, 85% of naproxen could be degraded in 60 min upon the addition of H2O2, while 65% degradation could be achieved in its absence. Results highlight that …

Prof.(Dr.)Seema Garg

Prof.(Dr.)Seema Garg

Amity University

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Photocatalytic CO2 reduction using metal and nonmetal doped TiO2 and its mechanism

Photocatalysis based on semiconductors has recently sparked significant scientific interest due to its numerous applications in environmental beneficiaries and renewable energy generation. TiO 2 reported in the literature is UV-active due to its larger band gap. Platinum (Pt) metal combined with titanium dioxide (TiO 2) photocatalyst, is widely used as an effective photocatalyst for carbon dioxide hydrogenation. Therefore, this Review study aims to enhance the activity of photocatalysts, employing distinct modification strategies to decrease band gap and make the photocatalyst efficient in absorbing visible light range. This review summarises the photocatalytic mechanism, as well as numerous modification techniques, for changing UV light-active photocatalysts to visible light active as well as increasing visible light absorption. These modification techniques include variability via using various semiconducting …

Karna Wijaya

Karna Wijaya

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Hydrodeoxygenation of refined palm kernel oil (RPKO) into bio-jet fuel using Mo/H-ZSM-5 catalysts

This research is focused to study the effect of the Mo-impregnated amount on H-ZSM-5 towards its activity and selectivity in hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction for refined palm kernel oil (RPKO) into bio-jet fuel. The RPKO sample was degummed, bleached, and then analyzed using GC–MS. Impregnation of Mo metal was done using ammonium heptamolybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O) as a precursor solution with initial Mo contents of 5, 10, and 15 wt% towards H-ZSM-5 weight to produce 5-Mo/Z, 10-Mo/Z, and 15-Mo/Zy. The catalysts were characterized using FT-IR, XRD, SEM–EDX, nitrogen desorption with Brunnauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Teller (BJH) equation, and NH3-TPD. The catalyst activity test was applied at HDO for RPKO using a semi-flow double reactor in a one-pot system. The HDO liquid product was analyzed using GC–MS. The catalyst which produced the highest yield of liquid …

AMALIA KURNIA AMIN

AMALIA KURNIA AMIN

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Development of chromium-impregnated sulfated silica as a mesoporous catalyst in the production of biogasoline from used cooking oil via a hydrocracking process

The production of biofuels as an alternative to fossil fuels has been a significant challenge until recently. The present work focuses on hydrocracking used cooking oil (UCO) into biogasoline over chromium impregnated on a sulfated mesoporous silica catalyst. The effects of varying sulfuric acid concentration, calcination temperature, and impregnated chromium content were systematically studied in the synthesis process employing TEOS and NaHCO3 by sol–gel method. A sulfuric acid concentration of 2 M and calcination temperature of 600 °C produced an SO4–SiO2 catalyst with the best acidity of 8.46 mmol g−1. Variation of chromium content (wt%) of 1% had Cr/SO4–SiO2 catalyst with the best acidity of 8.57 mmol g−1. SiO2, SS 2–600, and Cr-SS 1 catalysts were tested for their performance in the hydrocracking of UCO into biogasoline at an optimum temperature of 450 °C, H2 gas flow rate of 20 mL min−1 …

M. Romero

M. Romero

Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Facile deposition of a Ni–La–Zr catalyst on a FeCrAl monolith using the polymerized complex method: application to syngas production by tri-reforming of biogas

The aim of this study was to deposit a Ni–La–Zr catalyst on a FeCrAl monolith by in situ growth of the catalyst on a metallic surface through immersion in a modified polymeric precursor solution. The prepared monolith was characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy and was tested in a tri-reforming reaction of simulated biogas (CH4/CO2 = 3) for synthesis gas production. The monolithic catalyst presented better stability than the powdered catalyst under the 50-h test. In contrast, the powdered catalyst showed more pronounced deactivation, which was associated with higher carbon deposition. This study provides valuable information on a simple deposition method for Ni-based catalysts on FeCrAl monoliths for biogas tri-reforming reactions, which could have implications for biogas upgrading.

Ali Amoozadeh

Ali Amoozadeh

Semnan University

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Editorial Expression of Concern: A convenient, simple and one-pot synthesis of dibenzoxanthenes and tetrahydrobenzoxanthenes by nanotitania-supported sulfonic acid as an …

The Editor-in-Chief would like to alert readers that concerns have been raised regarding the image overlap of Fig. 2a of this article with other published articles authored by some of the same authors. Figure 2a in this article depicted an SEM image of nano titania-supported sulfonic acid (n-TSA) before use as a nanocatalyst. The authors stated that image 2a in the article is incorrect and depicts TiO2 nanoparticles. This mistake happened due to the same morphology of TiO2 nanoparticles and sulfonated nano TiO2 particles. The authors confirmed that this does not affect the core results of the article. Readers are advised to interpret the results with caution.

Sven Kureti

Sven Kureti

Technische Universität Bergakademie Freiberg

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Effect of SO2 on the soot oxidation activity of flame spray pyrolysis-made manganese oxide catalyst in gasoline model exhaust

This study deals with the effect of SO2 on the soot oxidation activity of flame spray pyrolysis-prepared manganese oxide in gasoline model exhaust. The catalyst was exposed to 15 and 30 ppm SO2 at 250 °C and was characterized by N2 physisorption, SO2-TPD, O2-TPD, DRIFTS, XPS and PXRD. It was shown that the SO2 adsorption results in the formation of surface sulfate, while the uptake increased from 26 to 45 μmol/g with growing sulfur content of the model exhaust. The sulfur adsorption reduces the mobility and availability of oxygen on the catalyst thus inhibiting the oxygen transport from gas phase over the catalyst to the contact points of the soot. Consequently, the soot oxidation activity, investigated with tight contact blends of catalyst and soot, decreases with inclining amount of sulfate. Finally, the sulfate species were mostly removed by thermal treatment at 705 °C, which additionally provoked catalyst …

Muhammad Nur

Muhammad Nur

Universitas Diponegoro

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

An insight into the photocatalytic degradation of the antibiotic rifampicin by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation

Photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic rifampicin (RIF) in aqueous solution, employing 100-nm sized anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a catalyst, under 365-nm light irradiation (0.28 mW cm‒2) was investigated. The direct photolysis and adsorptive removal of the ansamycin antibiotic were found to be negligibly inefficient. The experimental data suggest that photocatalysis efficiently degrades RIF, and the effect of irradiation time, catalyst dosage, pH of medium, and temperature was elucidated. The optimum photocatalytic degradation occurred in the colloidal mixture of 30.38 μM RIF solution and 10 mg TiO 2 NPs at pH 5.63. The activation energy was estimated to be 1.585±0.079 kJ mol‒1. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the antibiotic followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model with the rate constant of 0.016±0.002 min‒1, and the additional of a small amount of H 2 O 2 accelerates the photocatalytic …

Anwar Usman

Anwar Usman

Universiti Brunei Darussalam

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

An insight into the photocatalytic degradation of the antibiotic rifampicin by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation

Photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic rifampicin (RIF) in aqueous solution, employing 100-nm sized anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a catalyst, under 365-nm light irradiation (0.28 mW cm‒2) was investigated. The direct photolysis and adsorptive removal of the ansamycin antibiotic were found to be negligibly inefficient. The experimental data suggest that photocatalysis efficiently degrades RIF, and the effect of irradiation time, catalyst dosage, pH of medium, and temperature was elucidated. The optimum photocatalytic degradation occurred in the colloidal mixture of 30.38 μM RIF solution and 10 mg TiO 2 NPs at pH 5.63. The activation energy was estimated to be 1.585±0.079 kJ mol‒1. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the antibiotic followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model with the rate constant of 0.016±0.002 min‒1, and the additional of a small amount of H 2 O 2 accelerates the photocatalytic …

Dr.  Ude Callistus Nonso (MNSE, C.Reg, MNIM, MNSChE))

Dr. Ude Callistus Nonso (MNSE, C.Reg, MNIM, MNSChE))

Michael Okpara University of Agriculture

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Kinetics evaluation of lard oil methanolysis catalyzed by thermally modified hybrid banana-plantain-peel-ash

The kinetics and reaction mechanism of lard oil (LO) methanolysis heterogeneously catalyzed by thermally modified hybrid-banana-plantain-peel-ash catalyst in lard-oil methyl-ester production were explored. The catalyst properties were ascertained via instrumental assay. The kinetic evaluation was performed at the following reaction settings; 50 C, 55 C, 60 C temperature, 10.5: 1 methanol-to-LO-molar-proportion, 2.5 wt% catalyst amount as well as 0–3.5 h time range. Eley–Rideal-(ER) coupled with Langmuir–Hinshelwood–Hougen–Watson reaction-mechanisms were employed to explore the kinetics evaluation. The rate expression based on surface-reaction between triglyceride and adsorbed-methanol (CH 3 OHS) as the rate-defining stage (RDS) in ER process was established to satisfy the investigational data. The thermodynamic along with the kinetic factors were established on the RDS of the lard oil …

BEN NIU

BEN NIU

Shenzhen University

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

A preliminary study on the co-hydrogenation process of coal tar and bio-oil

This study investigates the synergistic effect during the co-hydrogenation process of coal tar and biomass oil through experiments. By conducting hydrogenation experiments on model compounds of coal tar (naphthalene, tetrahydronaphthalene, decalin, and 9, 10-phenanthrene) and waste soybean oil, it was found that partially saturated and fully saturated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons release active hydrogen atoms due to dehydrogenation at high temperatures. These active hydrogen atoms can promote the hydrogenation conversion of fatty acids derived from triglycerides in waste soybean oil during the co-hydrogenation process with coal tar. Through co-hydrogenation experiments of coal tar and waste soybean oil, it was discovered that when coal tar was first hydrogenated under conditions of temperature of 360 C, pressure of 8 MPa, and LHSV (liquid hourly space velocity) of 0.4 h− 1, and then mixed with …

eduardo jaime vernon-carter (ORCID:0000-0001-8367-1499)

eduardo jaime vernon-carter (ORCID:0000-0001-8367-1499)

Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

A memory-based approach to modeling chemical reaction kinetics

This work explores the application of a memory-based approach to modeling chemical reaction kinetics. The key idea is that the past reaction rates impact the current reaction rate via a memory kernel. In this way, the chemical reaction kinetics is path-dependent in the sense that the reaction trajectory determines, via temporal correlations, the current reaction rate. One arrives at a memory-based kinetics model represented as integro-differential equations. Memory models can be seen as the bridge between models based on fractional calculus and classical integer order derivatives in the time domain. However, memory-based models can be made affordable for practitioners since concepts involved in fractional calculus are not required. Two examples are used to illustrate the model development and the parameter estimation. It was concluded that the intrinsic local time chemical kinetics may be quite simple (eg, first …

Jonathan Hobley

Jonathan Hobley

Universiti Brunei Darussalam

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

An insight into the photocatalytic degradation of the antibiotic rifampicin by titanium dioxide nanoparticles in aqueous solution under UV light irradiation

Photocatalytic degradation of antibiotic rifampicin (RIF) in aqueous solution, employing 100-nm sized anatase TiO 2 nanoparticles (NPs) as a catalyst, under 365-nm light irradiation (0.28 mW cm‒2) was investigated. The direct photolysis and adsorptive removal of the ansamycin antibiotic were found to be negligibly inefficient. The experimental data suggest that photocatalysis efficiently degrades RIF, and the effect of irradiation time, catalyst dosage, pH of medium, and temperature was elucidated. The optimum photocatalytic degradation occurred in the colloidal mixture of 30.38 μM RIF solution and 10 mg TiO 2 NPs at pH 5.63. The activation energy was estimated to be 1.585±0.079 kJ mol‒1. The photocatalytic degradation kinetics of the antibiotic followed the Langmuir–Hinshelwood model with the rate constant of 0.016±0.002 min‒1, and the additional of a small amount of H 2 O 2 accelerates the photocatalytic …

Muhammad Saeed

Muhammad Saeed

Quaid-i-Azam University

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of rGO supported novel hybrid materials for green fuel production

Aliovalent ion substituted fluorapatite of formula Bi0.5Na0.5Ca4(PO4)3F was synthesized by co-precipitation method and characterized by powder X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. The catalytic activity of the synthesized compound was tested on one pot multicomponent reaction (Biginelli reaction) for the synthesis of 3,4-dihydropyrimidin-2(1H)-one and its derivatives. The compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic techniques and melting point. An enhanced yield was observed with this catalyst for the condensation of ethyl acetoacetate, urea and benzaldehyde compared to unsubstituted fluorapatite.

Gábor Lente

Gábor Lente

Pécsi Tudományegyetem

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Fifty years in business

This issue marks the 50th birthday of the journal Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis. It was first published under the title ‘Reaction Kinetics and Catalysis Letters’ in the spring of 1974. This is a nice occasion to look at the journal in historical perspective. Actually, having a glance at the very first issue is very instructive in this respect. The cover is shown in Fig. 1, the journal information page in Fig. 2. The journal was originally founded as a joint venture of the Hungarian and Soviet Academies of Sciences with two Editors-in-Chief, Georgy K. Boreskov and Ferenc Nagy. In the early 1970s, the major driving force was to open communication channels for eastern bloc scientists with the rest of the world. With the political changes of the late 1980s and early 1990s, this goal became irrelevant, but the Russian-Hungarian co-operation continued for about two decades even on a formal level as the journal had a co …

Suryo Purwono

Suryo Purwono

Universitas Gadjah Mada

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Hydrodeoxygenation of refined palm kernel oil (RPKO) into bio-jet fuel using Mo/H-ZSM-5 catalysts

This research is focused to study the effect of the Mo-impregnated amount on H-ZSM-5 towards its activity and selectivity in hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) reaction for refined palm kernel oil (RPKO) into bio-jet fuel. The RPKO sample was degummed, bleached, and then analyzed using GC–MS. Impregnation of Mo metal was done using ammonium heptamolybdate ((NH4)6Mo7O24·4H2O) as a precursor solution with initial Mo contents of 5, 10, and 15 wt% towards H-ZSM-5 weight to produce 5-Mo/Z, 10-Mo/Z, and 15-Mo/Zy. The catalysts were characterized using FT-IR, XRD, SEM–EDX, nitrogen desorption with Brunnauer-Emmet-Teller (BET) and Barrett-Joyner-Teller (BJH) equation, and NH3-TPD. The catalyst activity test was applied at HDO for RPKO using a semi-flow double reactor in a one-pot system. The HDO liquid product was analyzed using GC–MS. The catalyst which produced the highest yield of liquid …

Tannaz Pak

Tannaz Pak

Teesside University

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

A comparative study of acid-activated non-expandable kaolinite and expandable montmorillonite for their CO2 sequestration capacity

This study aims to improve the pore volume and specific surface area of kaolinite (Kaol) and montmorillonite (Mt) through low-temperature acid treatment to address their limited adsorption capacity. Clay mineral samples underwent sulfuric acid activation at various concentrations and durations. SEM analysis indicated acid activation improved kaolinite pore structure, increasing specific surface area, while montmorillonite exhibited reduced grain size and higher porosity, resulting in greater pore volume and surface area. EDX analysis revealed changes in chemical composition, including a 10% increase in silica and a 13% reduction in aluminium in kaolinite, whereas montmorillonite exhibited a 13% aluminium increase and 9.5% higher silica content. Kaolinite’s XRD pattern remained unchanged, resisting 2.5 M acid activation, while montmorillonite displayed modified patterns, indicating interlayer conversion with …

Francesco Parrino

Francesco Parrino

Università degli Studi di Palermo

Reaction Kinetics, Mechanisms and Catalysis

Photocatalytic degradation of naproxen in water under solar irradiation in the presence of globular NiFe2O4 nanoparticles

Globular NiFe2O4 nanoparticles have been synthesized by a simple sol–gel method. The structural, morphological, and optical properties of the material have been thoroughly characterized by means of X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Fourier transformed infrared and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, specific surface area, and porosity analysis. Finally, NiFe2O4 has been tested for the photocatalytic degradation of naproxen, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug widely present in water effluents, under natural solar light irradiation and under several experimental conditions. In particular, the beneficial effect of small H2O2 amounts added to the photocatalytic suspension has been highlighted. The kinetic model reveals that under solar irradiation, 85% of naproxen could be degraded in 60 min upon the addition of H2O2, while 65% degradation could be achieved in its absence. Results highlight that …