Highly efficient high-power rectenna with the diode on antenna (DoA) topology

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Published On 2022/10/1

In this paper, a high-efficiency high-power rectenna with a bridge diode and the diode on antenna (DoA) topology is discussed. First, the topologies of rectifiers and rectennas are discussed to indicate the direction for obtaining highly efficient rectification. Rectifiers with well-matched diode pairs, as double voltage and bridge rectifiers, can reactively terminate even order harmonics, and is suitable for highly efficient operation. A rectenna with the DoA topology is suitable for a direct connection between the highly functional antenna and the rectifier diodes to remove lossy circuit portions. Next, the formulas for the rectification efficiency of the bridge rectifier are demonstrated with the behavioral model. The indicated formulas clarify the fundamental limitation on the rectification efficiency, which is the design goal in case of the DoA topology. Finally, we demonstrate a 5.8 GHz band 1 W rectenna with the bridge diode and …

Journal

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Published On

2022/10/1

Volume

105

Issue

10

Page

483-491

Authors

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

Position

H-Index(all)

8

H-Index(since 2020)

6

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Microwave circuit

Wireless power transfer

Rectifier

University Profile Page

Other Articles from authors

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

An Integrated Planar Guanella Balun with the Quasi-Coaxial Structure on GaAs Substrate

This paper proposes a planar Guanella balun with the quasi-coaxial structure. This is the first report of the Guanella balun fabricated on a GaAs substrate. The quasi-coaxial structure is configured with metal layers on three thin dielectric layers of a few micrometers thickness. These layers are laminated on the GaAs substrate. The metal on the second layer (the second metal) is an inner conductor, which is surrounded by the first and third metals correspond to an outer conductor. The first and third metals are split lines to widen the inner conductor. The fabricated Guanella balun has a spiral shape, and its size is by . The fabricated Guanella balun shows less than of amplitude imbalance and 7.3 degrees of phase imbalance from 5 GHz to 15GHz. The fabricated Guanella balun is realized with half elements of a Marchand balun and achieves good performance with small size.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters

Graded Index Fiber-Inspired 3-D Printed Surface Focusing Porous Dielectric Structure With GaAs MMIC Rectenna Towards Millimeter Wave Wireless Power Transfer Application

Borrowing the idea of the graded-index (GRIN) fiber, we propose an all-dielectric porous structure with a unique surface focusing feature to improve the performance of the rectenna for millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) wireless power transfer (WPT) applications in this letter. The on- and off-axis focusing properties of the proposed structure are analyzed by the full-wave electromagnetic simulation. Moreover, benefitting from the low-cost 3-D printing technique, the designed GRIN structure prototype with different pore densities of the polylactic acid material is fabricated. The near-field phase transform experiment at 28 GHz was carried out to verify the excellent focusing performance of the fabricated structure prototype. Besides, the characteristics of multifocal spots on the surface of the proposed structure are further confirmed by the mm-Wave WPT experiments with a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit rectenna …

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

高効率・大電力レクテナ

本報告では,金沢工業大学における高効率・大電力レクテナの研究状況について述べる.ドローンなどのUAVへの無線給電を行う場合,限られた受電面積から所望の直流電力を取り出すために,レクテナの大電力化,高効率化が必要となる.本稿ではその手法を述べる.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diode を用いた 5.75 GHz 帯 1W レクテナ

空間伝送型ワイヤレス電力伝送の法制度化が進み,実用化に向けた開発が行われている.その中で,金沢工大ではダイポールアンテナとE-pHEMT gate anode diode(GAD)による整流素子を直接整合し,整合回路の損失を抑制した高効率レクテナを報告している[1].本報告は,レクテナを低姿勢化させる上で有利なパッチアンテナ用い,[1]と同様の直接整合構成の1Wレクテナを開発したので,その結果を報告する.[1] N. Sakai, K. Itoh et.al, "5.8GHz Band 10W Rectenna with GaAs E-pHEMT Gated Anode Diode on the Aluminum Nitride Antenna for Thermal Dispersion," IEEE MTT-S IMS2023, pp.1003 – 1005, 2023-8.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

塗布型カーボンナノチューブ薄膜トランジスタによる Gated anode diode を用いる 920MHz 帯レクテナ

本報告では薄形で安価な塗布プロセスが適用可能なカーボンナノチューブ薄膜トランジスタ (carbon nanotube thin –film transistor: CNT-TFT) による920MHz帯レクテナについて述べる.ここでは高い移動度が得られるCNT-TFTによりgated anode diode (GAD)を構成し,整流素子としている.このCNT-TFT GADは強い周波数分散特性を有するため,直流特性と高周波特性を用いモデル化している.このCNT-TFT GADにより倍電圧整流器を構成し,さらに高利得特性を有するデュアルループアンテナと接続し,レクテナを構成している.試作した920MHz帯レクテナの大きさは46mm x 92mmであり,基準アンテナへの受電電力0dBmの条件で0.41Vの出力電圧を確認した.これはEIRP 2Wの送信機から1.48m離れた場所での受電に相当する測定条件である.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

倍電圧整流器 IC の高調波輻射量の評価結果

本報告では,倍電圧整流器ICの高調波輻射量の評価結果を報告する.一般的な倍電圧整流器の等価回路をもとにしたレイアウト(Layout A)と平滑用MIMキャパシタの配置を変え,対称構造にしたレイアウト(Layout B)を比較する.その結果として,Layout Aは入力電力25.6dBmのとき,整流効率67.2%,出力電圧8.6Vを得ている.Layout Bも同等である.また,2倍波電力への変換損の測定値は,Layout Aでは-38.5dBc@Pin = 25.6dBm,Layout Bでは-41.3dBc@Pin = 25.6dBmである.レイアウトを対称とすることにより2倍波の高調波輻射レベルが2.8dB抑制することができる.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

量子ビット駆動用 X 帯偶高調波リングミクサ MMIC の特性

量子ビット駆動用マイクロ波信号源では,演算の判定誤りを抑制するため低スプリアス特性が要求される.これに適用するため,アンチパラレルダイオードペア(APDP)を用いる偶高調波ミクサを検討している.ここでは X帯偶高調波リングミクサMMICの評価結果を示す.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

インピーダンス変成微小ループアンテナを用いる 28GHz 帯 GaAs 高感度レクテナ MMIC

Beyond 5Gに向け,ミリ波における通信と無線電力伝送(WPT)の融合システムを検討している. WPTのサービスエリア拡大のためには高感度レクテナが必要となる.本報告では,小形に高インピーダンス特性を実現できる微小ループアンテナ(SLA)を適用した28GHz帯GaAs高感度レクテナMMICの試作結果を示す.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

整合回路付き高周波倍電圧整流回路の整流効率の理論式

本報告は整合回路を含む高効率倍電圧整流回路の設計に向けて,整合回路を装荷した倍電流整流回路の整流効率の理論式を導出する.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

準同軸構造グァネラバラン GaAs IC の試作結果

平衡-不平衡変換を行う高周波回路としてマーチャントバランが良く用いられている.ただし,2つのλ/4結合線路で構成されるため小型化の課題がある.ここではバランの小型化に向けて,1つのλ/4同軸伝送線路で構成可能なグァネラバランを準同軸構造によりGaAs IC上に形成した.試作の結果,4~15GHzで,3dBの分配損とI/O パッドの損失を含む挿入損失は6.3±1.4 dB,振幅インバランスは0.7dB以下,位相インバランスは10.9度以下が得られた.I/O パッドを除くグァネラバランのコアサイズは425μm×345μmである.併せて作製したマーチャントバランと比較して同等の性能で22.2%の小型化が図れた.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

Novel Energy Harvesting and SWIPT System at 28 GHz with a Simple Phased Array

The realization of future radiative wireless power transfer products necessitates a simple and low-cost phased array with higher frequency to increase the beam efficiency. Further, simultaneous wireless power and information transfer (SWIPT) are also expected. This study developed a simple phased array at 28 GHz while considering energy harvesting from 5G radio waves. The number of antenna elements in the phased array with parasitic elements were reduced and novel, simple, and low-cost phase shifters were employed. Consequently, beam steering and SWIPT experiments were conducted using the developed phased array. This study expanded upon the developed phased array and the experimental results in Japan.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

920 MHz band rectenna with the CNT-TFT GAD

This paper presents the first demonstration of rectification with the carbon nanotube thin film transistor (CNT-TFT) for wireless power transfer (WPT) in the 920 MHz band. The CNT-TFT that is a coated TFT using semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes has advantage of low-cost fabrication and planner integration with an antenna on a thin film. On the other, reported frequency ranges were within HF bands due to their wider channel size. For applying the CNT-TFT to GHz-order rectification, the gated anode diode (GAD) is employed and is characterized for its modeling. As the results, practical operations of 920 MHz band rectenna with the CNT-TFT GAD and the dual loop antenna can be confirmed in experimental investigations.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

電子情報通信学会論文誌 C

AMC 動作基板上の誘導性高インピーダンスモノポールアンテナを用いる 5.8 GHz 帯大電力レクテナ

本論文では薄形レクテナを地導体上に配置するために,AMC(Artificial Magnetic Conductor)動作基板上に配置した誘導性高インピーダンスモノポールアンテナを用いる5.8 GHz帯大電力レクテナの設計,試作結果を示す.ここではAMCから想起され,同様の動作をするグリッド導体を有する薄形基板であるAMC動作基板を用いることにより,地導体から2 mmの高さでモノポールアンテナを実現する.これを誘導性かつ高インピーダンス動作するよう設計し,整流用ダイオードとして用いる0.5 μm GaAs E-pHEMTによるGated Anode Diode(GAD)と共役整合する.整合回路を不要とすることで,高効率化を図っている.試作したレクテナの大きさは15 mm × 17.2 mm × 2.1 mmであり,地導体・金属上に実装可能である.測定の結果,整流器への入力電力31.8 dBm(1.51 W)に対し整流効率84.4%,出力電圧37.7 Vの良好な結果が得られている.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

5.8 GHz band 10 W rectenna with GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diode on the aluminum nitride antenna for thermal dispersion

In this paper, the 5.8 GHz band 10 W rectenna is demonstrated. The GaAs bridge rectifier IC with GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diodes (GADs) is employed to obtain input power of 10 W. The IC is directly connected with the inductive high-impedance antenna to reduce circuits’ loss. Furthermore, the antenna is implemented on the aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate for thermal dispersion. With migrated circuit functionalities, simulated radiation efficiency of the antenna is 99.2 %. Measured rectification efficiency of the rectifier is 83.7 % at input power of 10 W. This is the top performance among 10 W class rectifies

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Technical Report; IEICE Tech. Rep.

5.8 GHz band 10 W rectenna on the aluminum nitride antenna for thermal dispersion

(in English) This paper presents the 5.8 GHz band 10W rectenna with GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diode (GAD) on the aluminum nitride (AlN) antenna. The rectifier IC on the prototyped AlN antenna achieved a rectification efficiency of 83.7% at an input power of 10.5 W while maintaining a GAD junction temperature of 48 degrees. These results demonstrate that the rectenna can continuously receive RF power of 10 W with high rectification efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrate a 3x3 rectenna array with the prototyped rectenna in a microwave power transfer (MPT) system. The MPT system with the rectenna array could transmit a DC power of 43.4 W, allowing a drone to fly continuously for ten minutes.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

GaAs E-pHEMT GAD を用いる準ミリ波帯 1W 整流器 MMIC

GaAs E-pHEMT Gated anode diode を用いて26GHz帯1W倍電圧整流器MMICを設計した.測定結果は,26GHzにおいて入力電力29.5dBmのとき整流効率62.2%,出力電圧31.1Vである.GADにより準ミリ波帯において大電力・高効率整流が可能であることを示した.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

5.8 GHz 帯 10W 級倍電圧整流器 MMIC

マイクロ波での無線電力伝送(MPT)が法制化され,その実用化が進められている.筆者らは,MPT用レクテナの大電力化のため,GaAs E-pHEMTによるGated anode diode (GAD)を用いる大電力レクテナの検討を行っている.本報告では5.8GHz帯10W級倍電圧整流器MMICの評価結果を示す.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

ダイオードの閾値と降伏電圧を考慮した倍電流整流回路の解析

無線電力伝送システムにおいて,整流回路は受電した高周波電力を直流に変換し負荷へ給電するために欠かせない回路である.倍電流整流回路はモーターや電池などの低電圧・大電流で動作する負荷へ直流電力を供給するのに向いている.過去の発表ではダイオードを理想的なスイッチと仮定し,倍電流整流回路の動作および理論効率をまとめている.本稿では閾値電圧ならびにブレイクダウン(降伏)電圧を含んだダイオードモデルを用い,倍電流整流回路の動作について報告する.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diode を用いる 5.8 GHz 帯 5W レクテナ

大電力化に適するGaAs E-pHEMTによるgated anode diode(GAD)を用いる5.8GHz帯5Wレクテナの試作結果を示す.入力電力Pin=37dBm(5W)のときに整流効率=85.2%,出力電圧Vout=35.8Vである.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Technical Report; IEICE Tech. Rep.

Quasi millimeter wave high-power rectifier with GaAs E-pHEMT GADs

(in English) In this report, quasi-millimeter wave 1 W-class double-voltage rectifier MMIC with 0.18 μm GaAs E-PHEMT gated anode diodes (GADs) is presented. At first, high current characteristic of the 0.18 μm GaAs E-PHEMT GAD is indicated in its characterization, compared with the GaAs SBD. As the result, terminal capacitance of the GAD is made lower than that of the GaAs SBD, matching loss can be reduced especially in high-power rectification. In the experimental investigation of the developed double voltage rectifier MMIC, rectification efficiency of 62% and output voltage of 32.9 V are obtained at an input power of 30 dBm. This is the highest input power in reported rectifiers from 20 to 40 GHz band. And measured rectification efficiency is extreme higher than the reported efficiency trend versus input power. The reported circuit technique with the GaAs E-PHEMT GAD indicates good possibility for future …

Other articles from IEICE Transactions on Electronics journal

Jun Shibayama (柴山 純)

Jun Shibayama (柴山 純)

Hosei University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Numerical Dispersion Analysis of the One-Dimensional Iterated Crank-Nicolson-Based FDTD Method

Numerical dispersion property is investigated for the finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) method based on the iterated Crank-Nicolson (ICN) scheme. The numerical dispersion relation is newly derived from the amplification matrix and its property is discussed with attention to the eigenvalue of the matrix. It is shown that the ICN-FDTD method is conditionally stable but slightly dissipative.

Kenichi Okada

Kenichi Okada

Tokyo Institute of Technology

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Millimeter-Wave Transceiver Utilizing On-Chip Butler Matrix for Simultaneous 5G Relay Communication and Wireless Power Transfer

This paper introduces a wireless-powered relay transceiver designed to extend 5G millimeter-wave coverage. It employs an on-chip butler matrix, enabling beam control-free operation. The prototype includes PCB array antennas and on-chip butler matrix and rectifiers manufactured using a Si CMOS 65nm process. The relay transceiver performs effectively in beam angles from-45 to 45. In the 24 GHz wireless power transmission (WPT) mode, it generates 0.12 mW with 0dBm total input power, boasting an RF-DC conversion efficiency of 12.2%. It also demonstrates communication performance at 28 GHz in both RX and TX modes with a 100 MHz bandwidth and 64QAM modulation.

OHIRA Masataka

OHIRA Masataka

Saitama University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Precise Design of an 11-Pole TM010 Mode Dielectric Resonator BPF with Novel Capacitive Coupling Structures

In this paper, a precise design method of high-order bandpass filters (BPFs) with complicated coupling topologies is proposed, and is demonstrated through the design of an 11-pole BPF using TM010 mode dielectric resonators (DRs). A novel Z-shaped coupling structure is proposed which avoids the mixed use of TM010 and TM01δ modes and enables the tuning and assembling of the filter much easier. The coupling topology of the BPF includes three cascade triplets (CTs) of DRs, and both the capacitive and inductive couplings in the CTs are designed independently tunable, which produce consequently three controllable transmission zeros on both sides of the passband of filter. A procedure of mapping the coupling matrix of BPF to its physical dimensions is developed, and an iterative optimization of these physical dimensions is implemented to achieve best performance. The design of the 11-pole BPF is shown highly precise by the excellent agreement between the electromagnetic simulated response of the filter and the desired target specifications.

Tokiyoshi Matsuda

Tokiyoshi Matsuda

Ryukoku University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Thermoelectric effect of Ga-Sn-O thin films for internet-of-things application

Thermoelectric effect of Ga-Sn-O (GTO) thin films has been investigated for Internet-of-Things application. It is found that the amorphous GTO thin films provide higher power factors (PF) than the polycrystalline ones, which is because grain boundaries block the electron conduction in the polycrystalline ones. It is also found that the GTO thin films annealed in vacuum provide higher PF than those annealed in air, which is because oxygen vacancies are terminated in those annealed in air. The PF and dimensionless figure of merit (ZT) is not so excellent, but the cost effectiveness is excellent, which is the most important for some examples of the Internet-of-Things application.

Masao Kitano (ORCID:0000-0003-1065-8028)

Masao Kitano (ORCID:0000-0003-1065-8028)

Kyoto University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Why the controversy over displacement currents never ends?

Displacement current is the last piece of the puzzle of electromagnetic theory. Its existence implies that electromagnetic disturbance can propagate at the speed of light and finally it led to the discovery of Hertzian waves. On the other hand, since magnetic fields can be calculated only with conduction currents using Biot-Savart's law, a popular belief that displacement current does not produce magnetic fields has started to circulate. But some people think if this is correct, what is the displacement current introduced for. The controversy over the meaning of displacement currents has been going on for more than hundred years. Such confusion is caused by forgetting the fact that in the case of non-stationary currents, neither magnetic fields created by conduction currents nor those created by displacement currents can be defined. It is also forgotten that the effect of displacement current is automatically incorporated in the …

Tetsuya Hirose

Tetsuya Hirose

Osaka University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Sub-60-mV Charge Pump and its Driver Circuit for Extremely Low-Voltage Thermoelectric Energy Harvesting

Extremely low-voltage charge pump (ELV-CP) and its dedicated multi-stage driver (MS-DRV) for sub-60-mV thermoelectric energy harvesting are proposed. The proposed MS-DRV utilizes the output voltages of each ELV-CP to efficiently boost the control clock signals. The boosted clock signals are used as switching signals for each ELV-CP and MS-DRV to turn switch transistors on and off. Moreover, reset transistors are added to the MS-DRV to ensure an adequate non-overlapping period between switching signals. Measurement results demonstrated that the proposed MS-DRV can generate boosted clock signals of 350 mV from input voltage of 60 mV. The ELV-CP can boost the input voltage of 100 mV with 10.7% peak efficiency. The proposed ELV-CP and MS-DRV can boost the low input voltage of 56 mV.

Hisamatsu Nakano

Hisamatsu Nakano

Hosei University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Numerical Dispersion Analysis of the One-Dimensional Iterated Crank-Nicolson-Based FDTD Method

Numerical dispersion property is investigated for the finitedifference time-domain (FDTD) method based on the iterated Crank-Nicolson (ICN) scheme. The numerical dispersion relation is newly derived from the amplification matrix and its property is discussed with attention to the eigenvalue of the matrix. It is shown that the ICN-FDTD method is conditionally stable but slightly dissipative.

Masaya Tamura

Masaya Tamura

Toyohashi University of Technology

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Design of a capacitive coupler for underwater wireless power transfer focused on the landing direction of a drone

This paper presents the design of a capacitive coupler for underwater wireless power transfer focused on the landing direction of a drone. The main design feature is the relative position of power feeding/receiving points on the coupler electrodes, which depends on the landing direction of the drone. First, the maximum power transfer efficiencies of coupled lines with different feeding positions are derived in a uniform dielectric environment, such as that realized underwater. As a result, these are formulated by the coupling coefficient of the capacitive coupler, the unloaded qualify factor of dielectrics, and hyperbolic functions with complex propagation constants. The hyperbolic functions vary depending on the relative positions and whether these are identical or opposite couplers, and the efficiencies of each coupler depend on the type of water, such as seawater and tap water. The design method was demonstrated …

白井 宏, Hiroshi Shirai

白井 宏, Hiroshi Shirai

Chuo University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

An Extension of Physical Optics Approximation for Dielectric Wedge Diffraction for a TM-Polarized Plane Wave

In this study, the edge diffraction of a TM-polarized electromagnetic plane wave by two-dimensional dielectric wedges has been analyzed. An asymptotic solution for the radiation field has been derived from equivalent electric and magnetic currents which can be determined by the geometrical optics (GO) rays. This method may be regarded as an extended version of physical optics (PO). The diffracted field has been represented in terms of cotangent functions whose singularity behaviors are closely related to GO shadow boundaries. Numerical calculations are performed to compare the results with those by other reference solutions, such as the hidden rays of diffraction (HRD) and a numerical finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. Comparisons of the diffraction effect among these results have been made to propose additional lateral waves in the denser media.

Tetsuya Hirose

Tetsuya Hirose

Osaka University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Programmable Differential Bandgap Reference Circuit for Ultra-Low-Power CMOS LSIs

This paper describes a programmable differential bandgap reference (PD-BGR) for ultra-low-power IoT (Internet-of-Things) edge node devices. The PD-BGR consists of a current generator (CG) and differential voltage generator (DVG). The CG is based on a bandgap reference (BGR) and generates an operating current and a voltage, while the DVG generates another voltage from the current. A differential voltage reference can be obtained by taking the voltage difference from the voltages. The PD-BGR can produce a programmable differential output voltage by changing the multipliers of MOSFETs in a differential pair and resistance with digital codes. Simulation results showed that the proposed PD-BGR can generate 25-to 200-mV reference voltages with a 25-mV step within a±0.7% temperature inaccuracy in a temperature range from-20 to 100◦ C. A Monte Carlo simulation showed that the coefficient of the variation in the reference was within 1.1%. Measurement results demonstrated that our prototype chips can generate stable programmable differential output voltages, almost the same results as those of the simulation. The average power consumption was only 88.4 nW, with a voltage error of− 4/+ 3 mV with 5 samples.

Masaya Tamura

Masaya Tamura

Toyohashi University of Technology

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Capacitive Wireless Power Transfer System with Misalignment Tolerance in Flowing Freshwater Environments

The misalignment of a coupler is a significant issue for capacitive wireless power transfer (WPT). This paper presents a capacitive WPT system specifically designed for underwater drones operating in flowing freshwater environments. The primary design features include a capacitive coupler with an opposite relative position between feeding and receiving points on the coupler electrode, two phase compensation circuits, and a load-independent inverter. A stable and energy-efficient power transmission is achieved by maintaining a 90° phase difference on the coupler electrode in dielectrics with a large unloaded quality factor (Q factor), such as in freshwater. Although a 622-mm coupler electrode is required at 13.56MHz, the phase compensation circuits can reduce to 250mm as one example, which is mountable to small underwater drones. Furthermore, the electricity waste is automatically reduced using the …

Tadao Nagatsuma

Tadao Nagatsuma

Osaka University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

10-Gbit/s Data Transmission using 120-GHz-Band Contactless Communication with SRR Integrated Glass Substrate

We achieved 10-Gbit/s data transmission using a cuttingedge 120-GHz-band high-speed contactless communication technology, which allows seamless connection to a local area network (LAN) by simply placing devices on a desk. We propose a glass substrate-integrated rectangular waveguide that can control the permeability of the top surface to 120-GHz signals by contacting a dielectric substrate with the substrate. The top surface of the rectangular waveguide was replaced with a glass substrate on which split-ring resonators (SRRs) were integrated. The transmission loss of the waveguide with a glass substrate was 2.5 dB at 125 GHz. When a dielectric sheet with a line pattern formed on the contact surface was in contact with a glass substrate, the transmission loss from the waveguide to the dielectric sheet was 19.2 dB at 125 GHz. We achieved 10-Gbit/s data transmission by contacting a dielectric sheet to the SRR-integrated glass substrate.

koji sumitomo

koji sumitomo

University of Hyogo

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Influence of the gate voltage or the base pair ratio modulation on the λ-DNA FET performance

The influence of the gate voltage or base pair ratio modulation on the λ-DNA FET performance was examined. The result of the gate voltage modulation indicated that the captured electrons in the guanine base of the λ-DNA molecules greatly influenced the Id-Vd characteristics, and that of the base pair ratio modulation indicated that the tendency of the conductivity was partly clarified by considering the activation energy of holes and electrons and the length and numbers of the serial AT or GC sequences over which the holes or electrons jumped. In addition, the influence of the dimensionality of the DNA molecule on the conductivity was discussed theoretically.

Suga Ryosuke

Suga Ryosuke

Aoyama Gakuin University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Single-Layer Circular Polarizer for Linear Polarized Horn Antenna

In this paper, a single-layer circular polarizer for linear polarized horn antenna is proposed. The multiple reflected waves between the aperture and array provide desired phase differences between vertical and horizontal polarizations. The measured gain of the fabricated antenna is 14.4 dBic and the half power beamwidths of the vertical polarization are 28 and 24 deg. and those of the horizontal polarization are 31 and 23 degrees in the vertical and horizontal planes. The polarizer has a low impact on the gain and beamwidth of the primary horn antenna and their changes are within 1.7 dB and 10 degrees. The 3 dB fractional bandwidth of the axial ratio is measured to be 1.4%.

Kazutoshi Kobayashi

Kazutoshi Kobayashi

Kyoto Institute of Technology

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Measuring SET Pulse Widths in pMOSFETs and nMOSFETs Separately by Heavy-ion and Neutron Irradiation

Radiation-induced temporal errors become a significant issue for circuit reliability. We measured the pulse widths of radiationinduced single event transients (SETs) from pMOSFETs and nMOSFETs separately. Test results show that heavy-ion induced SET rates of nMOSFETs were twice as high as those of pMOSFETs and that neutron-induced SETs occurred only in nMOSFETs. It was confirmed that the SET distribution from inverter chains can be estimated using the SET distribution from pMOSFETs and nMOSFETs by considering the difference in load capacitance of the measurement circuits.

Minoru Fujishima

Minoru Fujishima

Hiroshima University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Advancements in Terahertz Communication: Harnessing the 300GHz Band for High-Efficiency, High-Capacity Wireless Networks

In this paper, we delve into wireless communications in the 300 GHz band, focusing in particular on the continuous bandwidth of 44 GHz from 252 GHz to 296 GHz, positioning it as a pivotal element in the trajectory toward 6G communications. While terahertz communications have traditionally been praised for the high speeds they can achieve using their wide bandwidth, it will also be shown that they have the potential to achieve high efficiency and support numerous simultaneous connectivity. To this end, new performance metrics, EIRP λ and EINF λ, are introduced as important benchmarks for transmitter and receiver performance, and their consistency is discussed. We then show that, assuming conventional bandwidth and communication capacity, the communication distance is independent of carrier frequency. Located between radio waves and light in the electromagnetic spectrum, terahertz waves promise to usher in a new era of wireless communications characterized not only by high-speed communication, but also by convenience and efficiency. Improvements in antenna gain, beam focusing, and precise beam steering are essential to its realization. As these technologies advance, the paradigm of wireless communications is expected to be transformed. The synergistic effects of antenna gain enhancement, beam focusing, and steering will not only push high-speed communications to unprecedented levels, but also lay the foundation for a wireless communications landscape defined by unparalleled convenience and efficiency. This paper will discuss a future in which terahertz communications will reshape the contours of wireless …

FAN LIU

FAN LIU

Saitama University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

Precise Design of an 11-Pole TM010 Mode Dielectric Resonator BPF with Novel Capacitive Coupling Structures

In this paper, a precise design method of high-order bandpass filters (BPFs) with complicated coupling topologies is proposed, and is demonstrated through the design of an 11-pole BPF using TM010 mode dielectric resonators (DRs). A novel Z-shaped coupling structure is proposed which avoids the mixed use of TM010 and TM01δ modes and enables the tuning and assembling of the filter much easier. The coupling topology of the BPF includes three cascade triplets (CTs) of DRs, and both the capacitive and inductive couplings in the CTs are designed independently tunable, which produce consequently three controllable transmission zeros on both sides of the passband of filter. A procedure of mapping the coupling matrix of BPF to its physical dimensions is developed, and an iterative optimization of these physical dimensions is implemented to achieve best performance. The design of the 11-pole BPF is shown highly precise by the excellent agreement between the electromagnetic simulated response of the filter and the desired target specifications.

Kenichi Okada

Kenichi Okada

Tokyo Institute of Technology

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

A 28GHz High-Accuracy Phase and Amplitude Detection Circuit for Dual-Polarized Phased-Array Calibration

This article presents a 28GHz high-accuracy phase and amplitude detection circuit for dual-polarized phased-array calibration. With dual-polarized calibration scheme, external LO signal is not required for calibration. The proposed detection circuit detects phase and amplitude independently, using PDC and ADC. By utilizing a 28GHz-to-140kHz downconversion scheme, the phase and amplitude are detected more accurately. In addition, reference signal for PDC and ADC is generated from 28GHz LO signal with divide-by-6 dual-step-mixing injection locked frequency divider (ILFD). This ILFD achieves 24.5-32.5GHz (28%) locking range with only 3.0mW power consumption and 0.01mm2 area. In the measurement, the detection circuit achieves phase and amplitude detections with RMS errors of 0.17degree and 0.12dB, respectively. The total power consumption of the proposed circuit is 59mW with 1-V supply …

Hiroaki Kobayashi

Hiroaki Kobayashi

Tohoku University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

An Efficient Reference Image Sharing Method for the Image-Division Parallel Video Encoding Architecture

This paper proposes an efficient reference image sharing method for the image-division parallel video encoding architecture. This method efficiently reduces the amount of data transfer by using pre-transfer with area prediction and on-demand transfer with a transfer management table. Experimental results show that the data transfer can be reduced to 19.8-35.3% of the conventional method on average without major degradation of coding performance. This makes it possible to reduce the required bandwidth of the inter-chip transfer interface by saving the amount of data transfer.

Tatsuya Kobayashi

Tatsuya Kobayashi

Harvard University

IEICE Transactions on Electronics

An SOI-based lock-in pixel with a shallow buried channel for reducing parasitic light sensitivity and improving modulation contrast

This paper presents a high-NIR sensitivity SOI-gate lock-in pixel with improved modulation contrast. The proposed pixel has a shallow buried channel and intermediate gates to create both a high lateral electric field and a potential barrier to parasitic light sensitivity. Device simulation results showed that parasitic light sensitivity reduced from 13.7% to 0.13% compared to the previous structure.