Harmonic reaction inductive folded dipole antenna for direct connection with rectifier diodes

IEEE Access

Published On 2022/5/13

In this paper, we present a harmonic reaction inductive folded dipole antenna (FDA) for a highly efficient rectenna which is close to the fundamental limitation on efficiency. To remove lossy RF circuit components of the rectifier, the proposed antenna topology integrates circuit functionalities for highly efficient rectification, such as impedance transformation to high-impedance, impedance matching, DC blocking, and harmonic reaction. The proposed antenna is connected directly to rectifier diodes. Thus, the rectification efficiency can be improved toward the fundamental limitation restricted by the performance of the rectifier diode. In experimental investigations of the 2.4 GHz band antenna, the antenna radiation efficiency is 99.2%, and the degradation due to integrated circuit functionalities is negligibly small. The 2.4 GHz band bridge rectifier achieves a rectification efficiency of 91.1% at an input power of 30 dBm. This …

Journal

IEEE Access

Published On

2022/5/13

Volume

10

Page

53433-53442

Authors

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

Position

H-Index(all)

8

H-Index(since 2020)

6

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Microwave circuit

Wireless power transfer

Rectifier

University Profile Page

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Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

An Integrated Planar Guanella Balun with the Quasi-Coaxial Structure on GaAs Substrate

This paper proposes a planar Guanella balun with the quasi-coaxial structure. This is the first report of the Guanella balun fabricated on a GaAs substrate. The quasi-coaxial structure is configured with metal layers on three thin dielectric layers of a few micrometers thickness. These layers are laminated on the GaAs substrate. The metal on the second layer (the second metal) is an inner conductor, which is surrounded by the first and third metals correspond to an outer conductor. The first and third metals are split lines to widen the inner conductor. The fabricated Guanella balun has a spiral shape, and its size is by . The fabricated Guanella balun shows less than of amplitude imbalance and 7.3 degrees of phase imbalance from 5 GHz to 15GHz. The fabricated Guanella balun is realized with half elements of a Marchand balun and achieves good performance with small size.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEEE Antennas and Wireless Propagation Letters

Graded Index Fiber-Inspired 3-D Printed Surface Focusing Porous Dielectric Structure With GaAs MMIC Rectenna Towards Millimeter Wave Wireless Power Transfer Application

Borrowing the idea of the graded-index (GRIN) fiber, we propose an all-dielectric porous structure with a unique surface focusing feature to improve the performance of the rectenna for millimeter-wave (mm-Wave) wireless power transfer (WPT) applications in this letter. The on- and off-axis focusing properties of the proposed structure are analyzed by the full-wave electromagnetic simulation. Moreover, benefitting from the low-cost 3-D printing technique, the designed GRIN structure prototype with different pore densities of the polylactic acid material is fabricated. The near-field phase transform experiment at 28 GHz was carried out to verify the excellent focusing performance of the fabricated structure prototype. Besides, the characteristics of multifocal spots on the surface of the proposed structure are further confirmed by the mm-Wave WPT experiments with a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit rectenna …

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

高効率・大電力レクテナ

本報告では,金沢工業大学における高効率・大電力レクテナの研究状況について述べる.ドローンなどのUAVへの無線給電を行う場合,限られた受電面積から所望の直流電力を取り出すために,レクテナの大電力化,高効率化が必要となる.本稿ではその手法を述べる.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diode を用いた 5.75 GHz 帯 1W レクテナ

空間伝送型ワイヤレス電力伝送の法制度化が進み,実用化に向けた開発が行われている.その中で,金沢工大ではダイポールアンテナとE-pHEMT gate anode diode(GAD)による整流素子を直接整合し,整合回路の損失を抑制した高効率レクテナを報告している[1].本報告は,レクテナを低姿勢化させる上で有利なパッチアンテナ用い,[1]と同様の直接整合構成の1Wレクテナを開発したので,その結果を報告する.[1] N. Sakai, K. Itoh et.al, "5.8GHz Band 10W Rectenna with GaAs E-pHEMT Gated Anode Diode on the Aluminum Nitride Antenna for Thermal Dispersion," IEEE MTT-S IMS2023, pp.1003 – 1005, 2023-8.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

塗布型カーボンナノチューブ薄膜トランジスタによる Gated anode diode を用いる 920MHz 帯レクテナ

本報告では薄形で安価な塗布プロセスが適用可能なカーボンナノチューブ薄膜トランジスタ (carbon nanotube thin –film transistor: CNT-TFT) による920MHz帯レクテナについて述べる.ここでは高い移動度が得られるCNT-TFTによりgated anode diode (GAD)を構成し,整流素子としている.このCNT-TFT GADは強い周波数分散特性を有するため,直流特性と高周波特性を用いモデル化している.このCNT-TFT GADにより倍電圧整流器を構成し,さらに高利得特性を有するデュアルループアンテナと接続し,レクテナを構成している.試作した920MHz帯レクテナの大きさは46mm x 92mmであり,基準アンテナへの受電電力0dBmの条件で0.41Vの出力電圧を確認した.これはEIRP 2Wの送信機から1.48m離れた場所での受電に相当する測定条件である.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

倍電圧整流器 IC の高調波輻射量の評価結果

本報告では,倍電圧整流器ICの高調波輻射量の評価結果を報告する.一般的な倍電圧整流器の等価回路をもとにしたレイアウト(Layout A)と平滑用MIMキャパシタの配置を変え,対称構造にしたレイアウト(Layout B)を比較する.その結果として,Layout Aは入力電力25.6dBmのとき,整流効率67.2%,出力電圧8.6Vを得ている.Layout Bも同等である.また,2倍波電力への変換損の測定値は,Layout Aでは-38.5dBc@Pin = 25.6dBm,Layout Bでは-41.3dBc@Pin = 25.6dBmである.レイアウトを対称とすることにより2倍波の高調波輻射レベルが2.8dB抑制することができる.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

量子ビット駆動用 X 帯偶高調波リングミクサ MMIC の特性

量子ビット駆動用マイクロ波信号源では,演算の判定誤りを抑制するため低スプリアス特性が要求される.これに適用するため,アンチパラレルダイオードペア(APDP)を用いる偶高調波ミクサを検討している.ここでは X帯偶高調波リングミクサMMICの評価結果を示す.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

インピーダンス変成微小ループアンテナを用いる 28GHz 帯 GaAs 高感度レクテナ MMIC

Beyond 5Gに向け,ミリ波における通信と無線電力伝送(WPT)の融合システムを検討している. WPTのサービスエリア拡大のためには高感度レクテナが必要となる.本報告では,小形に高インピーダンス特性を実現できる微小ループアンテナ(SLA)を適用した28GHz帯GaAs高感度レクテナMMICの試作結果を示す.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

整合回路付き高周波倍電圧整流回路の整流効率の理論式

本報告は整合回路を含む高効率倍電圧整流回路の設計に向けて,整合回路を装荷した倍電流整流回路の整流効率の理論式を導出する.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

準同軸構造グァネラバラン GaAs IC の試作結果

平衡-不平衡変換を行う高周波回路としてマーチャントバランが良く用いられている.ただし,2つのλ/4結合線路で構成されるため小型化の課題がある.ここではバランの小型化に向けて,1つのλ/4同軸伝送線路で構成可能なグァネラバランを準同軸構造によりGaAs IC上に形成した.試作の結果,4~15GHzで,3dBの分配損とI/O パッドの損失を含む挿入損失は6.3±1.4 dB,振幅インバランスは0.7dB以下,位相インバランスは10.9度以下が得られた.I/O パッドを除くグァネラバランのコアサイズは425μm×345μmである.併せて作製したマーチャントバランと比較して同等の性能で22.2%の小型化が図れた.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

Novel Energy Harvesting and SWIPT System at 28 GHz with a Simple Phased Array

The realization of future radiative wireless power transfer products necessitates a simple and low-cost phased array with higher frequency to increase the beam efficiency. Further, simultaneous wireless power and information transfer (SWIPT) are also expected. This study developed a simple phased array at 28 GHz while considering energy harvesting from 5G radio waves. The number of antenna elements in the phased array with parasitic elements were reduced and novel, simple, and low-cost phase shifters were employed. Consequently, beam steering and SWIPT experiments were conducted using the developed phased array. This study expanded upon the developed phased array and the experimental results in Japan.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

920 MHz band rectenna with the CNT-TFT GAD

This paper presents the first demonstration of rectification with the carbon nanotube thin film transistor (CNT-TFT) for wireless power transfer (WPT) in the 920 MHz band. The CNT-TFT that is a coated TFT using semiconducting single-walled carbon nanotubes has advantage of low-cost fabrication and planner integration with an antenna on a thin film. On the other, reported frequency ranges were within HF bands due to their wider channel size. For applying the CNT-TFT to GHz-order rectification, the gated anode diode (GAD) is employed and is characterized for its modeling. As the results, practical operations of 920 MHz band rectenna with the CNT-TFT GAD and the dual loop antenna can be confirmed in experimental investigations.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

電子情報通信学会論文誌 C

AMC 動作基板上の誘導性高インピーダンスモノポールアンテナを用いる 5.8 GHz 帯大電力レクテナ

本論文では薄形レクテナを地導体上に配置するために,AMC(Artificial Magnetic Conductor)動作基板上に配置した誘導性高インピーダンスモノポールアンテナを用いる5.8 GHz帯大電力レクテナの設計,試作結果を示す.ここではAMCから想起され,同様の動作をするグリッド導体を有する薄形基板であるAMC動作基板を用いることにより,地導体から2 mmの高さでモノポールアンテナを実現する.これを誘導性かつ高インピーダンス動作するよう設計し,整流用ダイオードとして用いる0.5 μm GaAs E-pHEMTによるGated Anode Diode(GAD)と共役整合する.整合回路を不要とすることで,高効率化を図っている.試作したレクテナの大きさは15 mm × 17.2 mm × 2.1 mmであり,地導体・金属上に実装可能である.測定の結果,整流器への入力電力31.8 dBm(1.51 W)に対し整流効率84.4%,出力電圧37.7 Vの良好な結果が得られている.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

5.8 GHz band 10 W rectenna with GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diode on the aluminum nitride antenna for thermal dispersion

In this paper, the 5.8 GHz band 10 W rectenna is demonstrated. The GaAs bridge rectifier IC with GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diodes (GADs) is employed to obtain input power of 10 W. The IC is directly connected with the inductive high-impedance antenna to reduce circuits’ loss. Furthermore, the antenna is implemented on the aluminum nitride (AlN) substrate for thermal dispersion. With migrated circuit functionalities, simulated radiation efficiency of the antenna is 99.2 %. Measured rectification efficiency of the rectifier is 83.7 % at input power of 10 W. This is the top performance among 10 W class rectifies

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Technical Report; IEICE Tech. Rep.

5.8 GHz band 10 W rectenna on the aluminum nitride antenna for thermal dispersion

(in English) This paper presents the 5.8 GHz band 10W rectenna with GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diode (GAD) on the aluminum nitride (AlN) antenna. The rectifier IC on the prototyped AlN antenna achieved a rectification efficiency of 83.7% at an input power of 10.5 W while maintaining a GAD junction temperature of 48 degrees. These results demonstrate that the rectenna can continuously receive RF power of 10 W with high rectification efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrate a 3x3 rectenna array with the prototyped rectenna in a microwave power transfer (MPT) system. The MPT system with the rectenna array could transmit a DC power of 43.4 W, allowing a drone to fly continuously for ten minutes.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

5.8 GHz 帯 10W 級倍電圧整流器 MMIC

マイクロ波での無線電力伝送(MPT)が法制化され,その実用化が進められている.筆者らは,MPT用レクテナの大電力化のため,GaAs E-pHEMTによるGated anode diode (GAD)を用いる大電力レクテナの検討を行っている.本報告では5.8GHz帯10W級倍電圧整流器MMICの評価結果を示す.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

ダイオードの閾値と降伏電圧を考慮した倍電流整流回路の解析

無線電力伝送システムにおいて,整流回路は受電した高周波電力を直流に変換し負荷へ給電するために欠かせない回路である.倍電流整流回路はモーターや電池などの低電圧・大電流で動作する負荷へ直流電力を供給するのに向いている.過去の発表ではダイオードを理想的なスイッチと仮定し,倍電流整流回路の動作および理論効率をまとめている.本稿では閾値電圧ならびにブレイクダウン(降伏)電圧を含んだダイオードモデルを用い,倍電流整流回路の動作について報告する.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Conferences Archives

GaAs E-pHEMT gated anode diode を用いる 5.8 GHz 帯 5W レクテナ

大電力化に適するGaAs E-pHEMTによるgated anode diode(GAD)を用いる5.8GHz帯5Wレクテナの試作結果を示す.入力電力Pin=37dBm(5W)のときに整流効率=85.2%,出力電圧Vout=35.8Vである.

Naoki Sakai

Naoki Sakai

Kanazawa Institute of Technology

IEICE Technical Report; IEICE Tech. Rep.

Quasi millimeter wave high-power rectifier with GaAs E-pHEMT GADs

(in English) In this report, quasi-millimeter wave 1 W-class double-voltage rectifier MMIC with 0.18 μm GaAs E-PHEMT gated anode diodes (GADs) is presented. At first, high current characteristic of the 0.18 μm GaAs E-PHEMT GAD is indicated in its characterization, compared with the GaAs SBD. As the result, terminal capacitance of the GAD is made lower than that of the GaAs SBD, matching loss can be reduced especially in high-power rectification. In the experimental investigation of the developed double voltage rectifier MMIC, rectification efficiency of 62% and output voltage of 32.9 V are obtained at an input power of 30 dBm. This is the highest input power in reported rectifiers from 20 to 40 GHz band. And measured rectification efficiency is extreme higher than the reported efficiency trend versus input power. The reported circuit technique with the GaAs E-PHEMT GAD indicates good possibility for future …

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IEEE Access

Lower Output Voltage Harmonics with Optimum Switching Angles of Single PV-Source Based Reduced Switch Multilevel Inverter using BWO Algorithm

This paper presents a technique of harmonic minimization from output voltage waveform of a reduced switch Multilevel Inverter (MLI) through an efficient bio inspired metaheuristic algorithm called Black widow optimization (BWO). The proposed reduced switch 13- level MLI scheme uses a single Photovoltaic (PV) source which can be suitable for grid integration. The proposed BWO algorithm minimizes the Total Harmonic Distortion (THD) of output voltage with low operational time compared to other existing nature based algorithms considering large searching area. The weighted THD (WTHD) of the output voltage is also minimized in order to reduce the effect of lower order harmonics from the output voltage in a greater extent. The convergence rate and level of accuracy of BWO algorithm is compared with two different bio inspired algorithms for justification. The MLI operation is carried out with fundamental …

Giuseppe Acri

Giuseppe Acri

Università degli Studi di Messina

IEEE Access

Assessment of exposure to spatially varying magnetic fields in MRI environments: modelling analysis for simulation tools

Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic technique widely used in medicine with more than 60 million exams per year performed worldwide. MRI personnel are always exposed to static and spatially heterogeneous magnetic fields (fringe or stray fields) and motion-induced time-varying magnetic fields during the working day. This kind of exposure can evoke vertigo and other sensory perceptions such as nausea, visual sensations, and a metallic taste which are not considered hazardous per se, but can be disturbing and may impair working ability. Up to now, no standardized procedures have been available in the literature for the assessment of occupational exposure in an MRI environment. The goal of this paper is to give some indications about the analytical models underlying the development of digital tools for occupational exposure assessment in MRI environments, to have easy but …

Ali Rostami

Ali Rostami

University of Tabriz

IEEE Access

All-Optical Broadband QDs Semiconductor Optical Amplifier (QDs-SOA): Inhomogeneous Broadening

The escalating demand for increased traffic capacity and bandwidth in communication networks has spurred the exploration of innovative solutions. This article delves into the promising features of Quantum Dot Semiconductor Optical Amplifiers (QD-SOAs), specifically focusing on InAs0.4Sb0.6 quantum dots within an InP quantum well structure. The study utilizes optical pumping to achieve population inversion in the active region, thereby enhancing efficiency and overcoming challenges associated with electrical pumping. Through numerical simulations employing the Finite Difference Time Domain (FDTD) technique, the article successfully demonstrates the amplification of a 6μm wavelength optical signal, achieving a gain of 7.8 times (8.92 dB). Furthermore, the impact of inhomogeneous and homogeneous broadenings on the amplifier’s structure and gain is thoroughly explored, exposing their crucial roles in …

Simon X. Yang

Simon X. Yang

University of Guelph

IEEE Access

The Optimal Global Path Planning of Mobile Robot Based on Improved Hybrid Adaptive Genetic Algorithm in Different Tasks and Complex Road Environments

In complex environments, mobile robots performing tasks with different hazard levels need to consider different road factors, this paper proposes a functional model correlating task hazard levels with road factors, proposing an innovative Hybrid Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (HAGA). The HAGA integrates an optimized two-optimization (2-opt) operator* with an enhanced Adaptive Genetic Algorithm (AGA) for efficient path planning in diverse tasks and complex road conditions. Firstly, pre-optimize the initial paths is performed by introducing a new domain knowledge-based operator that duplicates paths in the path are deleted to avoid the redundant paths, and then they are divided into the TOP layer and the ordinary layer, the TOP layer is optimized by using the adaptive 2-opt* operator that satisfies the hyperbolic tangent function (TANH), and the crossover and variability of the ordinary layer are optimized by using the …

Luca Vollero

Luca Vollero

Università Campus Bio-Medico di Roma

IEEE Access

A benchmarking on Optofluidic microplastic pattern recognition: A systematic comparison between statistical detection models and ML-based algorithms

Microplastics, small particles of plastic found in the environment, have become an increasingly worrying topic in recent years. This paper compares a statistical detection model to classifiers from various supervised learning paradigms in order to detect microplastics. The objective of this paper is to present a benchmark for detecting microplastics using statistical and machine learning models. The main goal is to assess and compare their performance when the defined parameters deviate from the optimal solution of the respective model. Results are presented in terms of probability error, comparing the performance of the machine learning techniques to the statistical model. The study considers a range of signal-to-noise ratios and a priori event probabilities, focusing on the classifiers’ ability to handle amplitude variability and threshold variation. Results show that as the number of analyzed particles in the flow …

Panagiotis Trakadas

Panagiotis Trakadas

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

IEEE Access

Federated Learning-Aided Prognostics in the Shipping 4.0: Principles, Workflow, and Use Cases

The next generation of shipping industry, namely Shipping 4.0 will integrate advanced automation and digitization technologies towards revolutionizing the maritime industry. As conventional maintenance practices are often inefficient, costly, and unable to cope with unexpected failures, leading to operational disruptions and safety risks, the need for efficient predictive maintenance (PdM), relying on machine learning (ML) algorithms is of paramount importance. Still, the exchange of training data might raise privacy concerns of the involved stakeholders. Towards this end, federated learning (FL), a decentralized ML approach, enables collaborative model training across multiple distributed edge devices, such as on-board sensors and unmanned vessels and vehicles. In this work, we explore the integration of FL into PdM to support Shipping 4.0 applications, by using real datasets from the maritime sector. More …

Panagiotis Trakadas

Panagiotis Trakadas

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

IEEE Access

Improving Connectivity in 6G Maritime Communication Networks with UAV Swarms

The deployment of maritime communication networks (MCNs) enables Internet-of-Things (IoT) applications, related to autonomous navigation, offshore facilities and smart ports. Still, the majority of maritime nodes, residing in MCNs lacks reliable connectivity. Towards this end, integrating unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in sixth generation (6G) MCN topologies results in the formation of an aerial segment, complementing shore base stations that may offer insufficient coverage, and satellite communication, characterized by increased delays. In this study, we focus on an MCN where the direct links towards a shore BS are not available, due to excessive fading conditions. For this case, we use a UAV swarm to provide improved wireless connectivity, adopting non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) for high resource efficiency. In downlink communication, UAVs take into consideration the desired service rate and the …

Panagiotis Trakadas

Panagiotis Trakadas

National and Kapodistrian University of Athens

IEEE access

Leveraging Network Data Analytics Function and Machine Learning for Data Collection, Resource Optimization, Security and Privacy in 6G Networks

The full deployment of sixth-generation (6G) networks is inextricably connected with a holistic network redesign able to deal with various emerging challenges, such as integration of heterogeneous technologies and devices, as well as support of latency and bandwidth demanding applications. In such a complex environment, resource optimization, and security and privacy enhancement can be quite demanding, due to the vast and diverse data generation endpoints and associated hardware elements. Therefore, efficient data collection mechanisms are needed that can be deployed at any network infrastructure. In this context, the network data analytics function (NWDAF) has already been defined in the fifth-generation (5G) architecture from Release 15 of 3GPP, that can perform data collection from various network functions (NFs). When combined with advanced machine learning (ML) techniques, a full-scale …