Control tuning methodology for modular multilevel converter‐based STATCOM

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Published On 2023

The application of modular multilevel converters (MMC) in medium voltage static synchronous compensators (STATCOMs) has been investigated in recent years. A huge challenge for MMC‐STATCOM is to compute the gain of the controllers. Therefore, the contribution of this paper is the proposal of a control tuning methodology for MMC‐STATCOM. For this purpose, the control and tuning strategies are presented. Since MMC‐STATCOM can employ different modulation strategies, two distinct modulation strategies are considered: nearest‐level control, with variable switching frequency; and phase‐shifted carrier pulse‐width modulation, with fixed switching frequency. Moreover, the proposal was validated through simulation and an experimental platform. The results indicate that the power response follows the reference, besides supplying the internal losses of the converter. The 10% ripple tolerance of the …

Journal

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Published On

2023

Authors

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Position

Professor at

H-Index(all)

104

H-Index(since 2020)

72

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Power Electronics

Smart Batteries

AI

University Profile Page

Lenin Martins Ferreira Morais

Lenin Martins Ferreira Morais

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Position

Professor of Electronics Engineering

H-Index(all)

15

H-Index(since 2020)

10

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Power Electronics

High Efficiency Converters

LED Drivers

Electronic Ballast for HID lamps

PFC converters

Renata Oliveira de Sousa

Renata Oliveira de Sousa

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Position

Doutoranda

H-Index(all)

4

H-Index(since 2020)

4

I-10 Index(all)

0

I-10 Index(since 2020)

0

Citation(all)

0

Citation(since 2020)

0

Cited By

0

Research Interests

Eletrônica de Potência

Other Articles from authors

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics

Health Prediction for Lithium-Ion Batteries Under Unseen Working Conditions

Battery health prediction is significant while challenging for intelligent battery management. This article proposes a general framework for both short-term and long-term predictions of battery health under unseen dynamic loading and temperature conditions using domain-adaptive multitask learning (MTL) with long-term regularization. First, features extracted from partial charging curves are utilized for short-term state of health predictions. Then, the long-term degradation trajectory is directly predicted by recursively using the predicted features within the multitask framework, enhancing the model integrity and lowering the complexity. Then, domain adaptation (DA) is adopted to reduce the discrepancies between different working conditions. Additionally, a long-term regularization is introduced to address the shortcoming that arises when the model is extrapolated recursively for future health predictions. Thus, the short …

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

IEEE/ASME Transactions on Mechatronics

Online Sensorless Temperature Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries Through Electro-Thermal Coupling

Owing to the nonnegligible impacts of temperature on the safety, performance, and lifespan of lithium-ion batteries, it is essential to regulate battery temperature to an optimal range. Temperature monitoring plays a fundamental role in battery thermal management, yet it is still challenged by limited onboard temperature sensors, particularly in large-scale battery applications. As such, developing sensorless temperature estimation is of paramount importance to acquiring the temperature information of each cell in a battery system. This article proposes an estimation approach to obtain the cell temperature by taking advantage of the electrothermal coupling effect of batteries. An electrothermal coupled model, which captures the interactions between the electrical and the thermal dynamics, is established, parameterized, and experimentally validated. A closed-loop observer is then designed based on this coupled model …

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Artificial Intelligence-Based State-of-Health Estimation of Lithium-Ion Batteries

The State of Health (SOH) estimation for automotive batteries is currently assessed with different techniques which may involve long testing procedure or require costly hardware to be implemented. This paper aims at contributing to this domain by exploiting the response of a lead-acid battery with respect to a short-term current profile using an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) classifier for SOH estimation. The method is applicable onboard the vehicle and no additional instrumentation is required on the retained vehicle. The design and validation of a SOH method with a short-term current profile using Artificial Intelligence (AI) in lead-acid batteries, which are commonly used in heavy-duty vehicles for cranking and cabin systems, are presented. The paper validates the considered approach with experimental data, which are representative of actual vehicle operations. In detail, the paper describes the retained …

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

arXiv preprint arXiv:2402.07777

Novel Low-Complexity Model Development for Li-ion Cells Using Online Impedance Measurement

Modeling of Li-ion cells is used in battery management systems (BMS) to determine key states such as state-of-charge (SoC), state-of-health (SoH), etc. Accurate models are also useful in developing a cell-level digital-twin that can be used for protection and diagnostics in the BMS. In this paper, a low-complexity model development is proposed based on the equivalent circuit model (ECM) of the Li-ion cells. The proposed approach uses online impedance measurement at discrete frequencies to derive the ECM that matches closely with the results from the electro-impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The proposed method is suitable to be implemented in a microcontroller with low-computational power, typically used in BMS. Practical design guidelines are proposed to ensure fast and accurate model development. Using the proposed method to enhance the functions of a typical automotive BMS is described. Experimental validation is performed using large prismatic cells and small-capacity cylindrical cells. Root-mean-square error (RMSE) of less than 3\% is observed for a wide variation of operating conditions.

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics

A Battery Digital Twin From Laboratory Data Using Wavelet Analysis and Neural Networks

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries are the preferred choice for energy storage applications. Li-ion performances degrade with time and usage, leading to a decreased total charge capacity and to an increased internal resistance. In this article, the wavelet analysis is used to filter the voltage and current signals of the battery to estimate the internal complex impedance as a function of state of charge (SoC) and state of health (SoH). The collected data are then used to synthesize a battery digital twin (BDT). This BDT outputs a realistic voltage signal as a function of SoC and SoH inputs. The BDT is based on feedforward neural networks trained to simulate the complex internal impedance and the open-circuit voltage generator. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified on the dataset from the prognostics data repository of NASA.

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

IEEE Transactions on Industry Applications

Small-Sample-Learning-Based Lithium-Ion Batteries Health Assessment: An Optimized Ensemble Framework

Machine Learning is widely studied in battery state of health (SOH) estimation due to its advantage in establishing the non-linear mapping between measurements and SOH. However, the requirement of a big dataset and the lack of robustness limit the practical application, especially in small sample learning. To tackle these challenges, an optimal ensemble framework called BaggELM (bagging extreme learning machine) is proposed for battery SOH estimation. Specifically, the required dataset is reduced by optimizing the input voltage and the hyperparameters of the BaggELM algorithm. Moreover, a statistical post-processing method is used to aggregate multiple ELMs, and the final estimate is determined by the maximum probability density value. As a result, the effects of random parameterization of ELM and the training data size on SOH estimation are suppressed, thus improving the robustness and accuracy of …

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Intelligent Cell Balancing Control for Lithium-Ion Battery Packs

This study introduces a balancing control strategy that employs an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) to ensure State of Charge (SOC) balance across lithium-ion (Li-ion) battery packs, consistent with the framework of smart battery packs. The model targets a battery pack consisting of cells with diverse characteristics, reflecting real-world heterogeneous conditions. A fundamental aspect of this approach is the ability to bypass individual cells optimally. This key feature stops current flow to and from the cell, allowing it to rest and cool off while avoiding charging or discharging cycles. The implementation of ANN enables adaptive and dynamic management of SOC, which is essential for optimizing performance and extending the lifespan of battery packs. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ANN-based balancing strategy in SOC balancing, demonstrating its potential as a critical solution in enhancing battery management systems for electric vehicles.

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Grid Impedance Shaping for Grid-Forming Inverters: A Soft Actor-Critic Deep Reinforcement Learning Algorithm

This paper proposed an advanced method for adjusting grid impedance in grid-forming inverters, utilizing the Soft Actor-Critic Deep Reinforcement Learning (SAC-DRL) algorithm. The approach contains a flexible strategy for controlling virtual impedance, supported by an equivalent grid impedance estimator. This facilitates accurate modifications of virtual impedance based on the grid’s X/R ratio and the converter’s power capacity, aiming to optimize power flow and maintain grid stability. A unique feature of this methodology is the division of virtual reactance into two segments: one adhering to standard control protocols and the other designated for precision enhancement via the SAC-DRL method. This strategy introduces a layer of intelligence to the system, strengthening its resilience against fluctuations in grid impedance. Experimental validations, executed on a laboratory setup, verify the robustness of this approach, highlighting its potential to significantly improve intelligent power grid management practices.

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Electric vehicle battery charging strategy

As a key enabler for transportation electrification and a contributor toward the net-zero carbon future, battery plays a pivotal role in determining the energy management performance of electric vehicles. Technical challenges facing the development of advanced automotive battery charging arise from various contradictory objectives, immeasurable internal states, and hard constraints. This chapter presents a critical introduction to the state-of-the-art charging strategies for the electric vehicle battery and their key enabling technologies. Specifically, battery charging solutions for electric vehicles are first classified and discussed. Then, the battery models on which these solutions rest are stated, the related charging frameworks are summarized, and the advantages and drawbacks of the adopted technologies are discussed. Suggestions for overcoming the limitations of the discussed charging strategies are proposed …

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Thermal state monitoring of lithium-ion batteries: Progress, challenges, and opportunities

Transportation electrification is a promising solution to meet the ever-rising energy demand and realize sustainable development. Lithium-ion batteries, being the most predominant energy storage devices, directly affect the safety, comfort, driving range, and reliability of many electric mobilities. Nevertheless, thermal-related issues of batteries such as potential thermal runaway, performance degradation at low temperatures, and accelerated aging still hinder the wider adoption of electric mobilities. To ensure safe, efficient, and reliable operations of lithium-ion batteries, monitoring their thermal states is critical to safety protection, performance optimization, as well as prognostics, and health management. Given insufficient onboard temperature sensors and their inability to measure battery internal temperature, accurate and timely temperature estimation is of particular importance to thermal state monitoring. Toward …

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Reliability Engineering & System Safety

Predictive health assessment for lithium-ion batteries with probabilistic degradation prediction and accelerating aging detection

Predictive health assessment is of vital importance for smarter battery management to ensure optimal and safe operations and thus make the most use of battery life. This paper proposes a general framework for battery aging prognostics in order to provide the predictions of battery knee, lifetime, state of health degradation, and aging rate variations, as well as the assessment of battery health. Early information is used to predict knee slope and other life-related information via deep multi-task learning, where the convolutional-long-short-term memory-bayesian neural network is proposed. The structure is also used for online state of health and degradation rate predictions for the detection of accelerating aging. The two probabilistic predicted boundaries identify the accelerating aging regions for battery health assessment. To avoid wrong and premature alarms, the empirical model is used for data preprocessing and …

Renata Oliveira de Sousa

Renata Oliveira de Sousa

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Smart foot based on FBG embedded in CFRP enhanced through Fuzzy-PID control

This work presents the improvement of the control methodology for a robotic smart foot with optical sensors to proprioception and using a hybrid adaptive controller with fuzzy logic and PID. To do this, the adaptive controller performs analysis in 50ms interactions, indicating the necessary adjustments to the PID controller gains. Therefore, experiments were carried out in various scenarios and the adaptive controller was compared with the conventional PID controller. As a result, the adaptive controller showed an improvement in overall performance when applied in scenarios with different ground inclination angles.

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Fractional-order control techniques for renewable energy and energy-storage-integrated power systems: A review

The worldwide energy revolution has accelerated the utilization of demand-side manageable energy systems such as wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems in order to deal with the growing energy crisis and greenhouse emissions. The control system of renewable energy units and energy storage systems has a high effect on their performance and absolutely on the efficiency of the total power network. Classical controllers are based on integer-order differentiation and integration, while the fractional-order controller has tremendous potential to change the order for better modeling and controlling the system. This paper presents a comprehensive review of the energy system of renewable energy units and energy storage devices. Various papers are evaluated, and their methods and results are presented. Moreover, the mathematical fundamentals of the fractional-order method are mentioned, and the various studies are categorized based on different parameters. Various definitions for fractional-order calculus are also explained using their mathematical formula. Different studies and numerical evaluations present appropriate efficiency and accuracy of the fractional-order techniques for estimating, controlling, and improving the performance of energy systems in various operational conditions so that the average error of the fractional-order methods is considerably lower than other ones.

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology

Battery states monitoring for electric vehicles based on transferred multi-task learning

State/temperature monitoring is one of the key requirements of battery management systems that facilitates efficient and intelligent management to ensure the safe operation of batteries in electrified transportation. This paper proposes an online end-to-end state monitoring method based on transferred multi-task learning. Measurement data is directly used for sharing information generation with the convolutional neural network. Then, the multiple task-specific layers are added for state/temperature monitoring. The transfer learning strategy is designed to improve accuracy further under various application scenarios. Experiments under different working profiles, temperatures, and aging conditions are conducted to evaluate the method, which covers the wide usage ranges in electric vehicles. Comparisons with several benchmarks illustrate the superiority of the proposed method with better accuracy and …

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Battery aging behavior evaluation under variable and constant temperatures with real loading profiles

Studying and analyzing battery aging behavior is crucial in battery health prognostic and management. This paper conducts novel and comprehensive experiments to evaluate battery aging under variable external stresses, including different dynamic load profiles and variable environmental temperatures. Respond analysis in the time and frequency domain is performed to account for the different aging rates under different current loadings, where the statistic calculation and fast Fourier transform are used for the analysis. The empirical model is used to fit the fade curve for the comparisons between constant and variable temperatures. The capacity decrease and internal resistance increase are extracted to evaluate capacity and power fade, respectively. The experimental results show that the urban dynamic operating conditions help to prolong the service life compared to the constant current aging case. In contrast …

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Small Signal Model of Modular Multilevel Converter with Power Synchronization Control

Power synchronization control (PSC) is one of the popular control schemes in grid-forming control-based converters because it simulates the grid support capability of conventional synchronous generators. However, prior research is based on two-level converters which do not have complex internal circuits, and whether PSC can be directly applied to the modular multilevel converter (MMC) topology since MMC has sub-module capacitor voltage ripples and inherent second harmonic circulating current algorithm, has not been analyzed. This paper establishes the small signal model of MMC with PSC considering the MMC internal dynamic and circulating current suppression control (CCSC). The power oscillation phenomenon when grid short-circuit ratio (SCR) increases is also demonstrated with the closed-loop system eigenvalues calculation and verified with the experimental results.

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Hyperparameter optimization in bagging-based ELM algorithm for lithium-ion battery state of health estimation

Artificial neural networks are widely studied for the state of health (SOH) estimation of Lithium-ion batteries because they can recognize global features from the raw data and are able to cope with multi-dimensional data. But the performance of the model depends to some extent on the selection of the hyperparameters, which remain constant during model training. To improve the generalization performance as well as accuracy, an ensemble learning framework is proposed for battery SOH estimation, where multiple extreme learning machines are trained combined with bagging technology. The numbers of bags and neurons of the base model are then tuned by five commonly used hyperparameter optimization methods. Moreover, the SOH value with maximum probability density is selected as the output estimate to further improve the estimation accuracy. Finally, experimental results on both NMC and LPF batteries …

Remus Teodorescu

Remus Teodorescu

Aalborg Universitet

Ieee Transactions on Industrial Electronics

Lithium-ion battery lifetime extension with positive pulsed current charging

Some studies verified that the pulsed current charging technique could extend the battery lifetime and improve the charging performance of lithium-ion batteries. However, some researchers are skeptical of this opinion because their studies have not found any advantages of pulsed current charging over conventional constant current (CC) charging. Positive pulsed current (PPC), the most common pulsed current mode, was selected for the investigation in this work. The effect of the PPC with various parameters, including the duty cycle, amplitude, and frequency, on the performance and lifetime of lithium-ion batteries, are investigated by experiments. According to the experimental results, the charging speed, charging capacity, and maximum rising temperature are mainly determined by the duty cycle and amplitude of the PPC. The battery lifetime with PPC under the frequency range from 0.05 Hz to 2 kHz has been …

Other articles from International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications journal

Dr.Mohamed Salem

Dr.Mohamed Salem

Universiti Sains Malaysia

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Modelling a five‐level LLC resonant converter for bidirectional battery application

This study designed and evaluated an integrated cascaded pair of full‐bridge LLC resonant bidirectional DC–DC converters usable in varied applications, including in energy storage systems, to function as an interface between two dc voltage buses in a variety of applications. The proposed converter combines an isolated five‐level cascaded H‐bridge LLC (IFCHB‐LLC) resonant circuit with a buck/boost circuit (bidirectional converter BID). In this converter, the inbuilt capabilities of an LLC converter, which function as a current source and a voltage source, were exploited, resulting in the constant current (CC) and constant voltage (CV) charges while CV was implemented in the discharge stage (reverse flow). The modelling of the LLC converter was done following the first harmonic approximation (FHA) approach. Furthermore, to ensure improved efficiency of the proposed system, the passive elements of the …

Aijaz Ahmad

Aijaz Ahmad

National Institute of Technology, Srinagar

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Advanced adaptive algorithm controlled single‐phase DSTATCOM operation during weak grid conditions

This paper presents the performance of a single‐phase utility‐tied distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM) with nonlinear load operating under weak grid conditions. The DSTATCOM is controlled by a complex kernel risk‐sensitive p‐power (CKRSP) algorithm. Ever‐increasing nonlinearity of the load, rapidly increasing renewable energy system installed capacity, and rising heating loads, especially during the winter season, lead to various power quality issues that worsen during weak grid conditions. An advanced adaptive control scheme, that is, CKRSP, enforces the system to perform various multifaceted operations, including harmonics suppression, handling rapid load variations, voltage sag and swell, and active and reactive power control at the point of common coupling (PCC) during weak grid conditions. The proposed CKRSP algorithm outperforms conventional control algorithms regarding steady …

Mithun Mondal

Mithun Mondal

Birla Institute of Technology and Science

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUIT THEORY AND APPLICATIONS

Analytical computation of driving point impedance in mutually coupled inhomogeneous ladder networks

Electrical systems are traditionally modeled as homogeneous ladder networks, disregarding the inherent inhomogeneity found in real-world systems. This can result in inaccuracies in analysis and design. The driving point impedance (DPI) is a crucial parameter for studying electrical systems, as it can be conveniently measured at the terminals. However, existing methods for calculating DPI have limitations, including increased complexity, high computational demands, convergence issues, and challenges in capturing high-frequency effects. A new approach for computing DPI of inhomogeneous ladder networks, reducible to series and shunt impedance circuit form, is introduced in this research. The method is based on state-space formulations and projective matrix analysis. It offers improved accuracy as compared with existing methods and can be applied to a wide range of networks. Simulation results from a six …

Dr. Amritesh Kumar

Dr. Amritesh Kumar

National Institute of Technology, Silchar

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Simplified control of TAB converter for scalable multibattery charging system

The integration of distributed energy resources (DERs) into DC microgrids has become commonplace in many applications, including electric vehicle (EV) systems that use batteries, fuel cells, and supercapacitors as energy storage systems. To make a sustainable charging system for electric vehicles, DERs can be used in conjunction with the grid. In many cases, charging systems based on isolated DC‐DC converters, such as the dual active bridge (DAB) converter, with various controls, are typically used. However, integrating multiple DERs at the common input DC link can result in a loss of isolation in the DAB converter and also leads to problems with circulating current. To maintain isolation, multiple DAB converters can be used, but this increases the system's size. Alternatively, the multiport isolated DC‐DC converter can address such issues but introduces complexities such as cross‐coupling between power …

Yanpu Zhao

Yanpu Zhao

Wuhan University

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

An adaptive feedback regulation method of wireless power transfer systems for compensating battery‐based source's fluctuations

This article proposes an adaptive feedback regulation method for wireless power transfer (WPT) systems, which can be applied to solve the problem of the drop in input voltage from the emergency power supply such as a battery‐based source. The whole WPT system transfers power mainly through the mutual inductance between the transmitter and receiver coils. The compensation coils are accessed to form the power feedback side, which can achieve constant voltage output by adjusting the duty cycle of the DC/DC converter. Furthermore, the finite element simulation result analyzes the constant voltage output characteristics of the proposed topology under different load conditions. Finally, an 85 kHz prototype based on the proposed method is built and tested to verify the performance and effectiveness of the design. The proposed method achieves a constant 48 V output when the load varies from 60 to 120 Ω …

Zhiwei Zhang

Zhiwei Zhang

Hangzhou Dianzi University

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

A broadband low‐loss SPDT RF switch using a new off‐chip compensation technology

An off‐chip compensation technology for low‐loss and broadband characteristics of radio frequency (RF) switches is proposed based on mathematical analysis of series shunt single pole double throws switches in this letter. This compensation technology can absorb the parasitic parameters of the switch Field Effect Transistor, improving the insertion loss and return loss of the switch as well as supporting higher bandwidth. To verify the design principle, a RF switch, using the SANAN GaAs 0.15 um pseudomorphic High Electron Mobility Transistors (pHEMT) process, and an off‐chip compensation network were designed and implemented. Specifically, after using an off‐chip compensation network, the measured bandwidth of switch has been expanded from 1.1–8.8 to 0.8–11 GHz, while the input and output return loss have also improved significantly.

Josep M. Guerrero

Josep M. Guerrero

Aalborg Universitet

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Improved fractional‐order hysteresis‐equivalent circuit modeling for the online adaptive high‐precision state of charge prediction of urban‐electric‐bus lithium‐ion batteries

Accurate state of charge (SOC) estimation is based on a precise battery model and is the focus of the battery management system (BMS). First, based on the second‐order RC equivalent circuit model and Grunwald–Letnikov (G‐L) definition, the high‐precision fractional‐order hysteresis‐equivalent circuit model (FH‐ECM) is established considering the open‐circuit voltage hysteresis effect. Then, the global parameters of the battery model are identified using a particle swarm algorithm optimized by the genetic algorithm (GA‐PSO). Third, a fractional‐order adaptive unscented Kalman filter (FOAUKF) algorithm is derived to estimate the SOC of lithium‐ion batteries. Finally, the feasibility of the model and algorithm is verified under complex working conditions. Under the dynamic stress test (DST) condition, the accuracy of model terminal voltage has been improved by 37.83%, and the error of SOC estimation has been …

Adil Sarwar

Adil Sarwar

Aligarh Muslim University

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Performance evaluation of five‐level packed U‐cell inverter and its fault‐tolerant variants

In the power electronics industry, reliability is of utmost importance to manufacturers. Power semiconductor devices are extensively utilized in multilevel inverters (MLIs), which results in increased failure probability. MLI structures have a significant impact on the system's overall reliability. MLIs with a high degree of reliability reduce system maintenance costs and improve efficiency and the life of the entire system. This paper presents a comprehensive evaluation of five‐level packed U‐cell (PUC5) inverter, modified five‐level PUC (MPUC5) inverter, and their fault‐tolerant (FT) variants with respect to reliability, degree of fault tolerance, power loss and efficiency, and cost. A more accurate reliability evaluation method is used in this work in which failure rates of each component of inverter topologies under healthy and post‐fault conditions are calculated. Hence, this method provides more accurate reliability function of …

Felipe B. Grigoletto

Felipe B. Grigoletto

Universidade Federal do Pampa

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

A five‐level common‐ground inverter with step‐up/step‐down dual‐mode operation for transformerless grid‐connected PV application

Step‐up multilevel inverters with common‐ground feature are attractive for transformerless photovoltaic systems. However, their performance deteriorates at step‐down voltage range. Considering a five‐level inverter with double voltage gain, the number of output voltage levels decreases from 5 to 3 for a modulation index smaller than 0.5, declining the quality of the output currents. This paper proposes a new dual‐mode five‐level common‐grounded inverter with a reduced number of switches. The proposed topology has the ability to operate as step‐up or step‐down making it well suited for application with wide input voltage range. The proposed inverter consists of five unidirectional switches, one bidirectional switch, two diodes, and two capacitors. In addition, the description of the topology, the design guidelines, and a comparison among the main topologies are given in detail. Experimental results are obtained …

Igor Simone Stievano

Igor Simone Stievano

Politecnico di Torino

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

SPICE‐compliant load flow analysis of power distribution networks with behavioral loads

This paper discusses an alternative and Simulation Program with Integrated Circuit Emphasis (SPICE)‐compatible solution for the steady‐state simulation of power distribution networks. It introduces two alternative auxiliary subcircuits that allow to efficiently simulate the network in any simulation tool for circuit analysis. This feature introduces remarkable benefits in terms of simplicity and generality, since it avoids the need for any iterative method, thus bridging the gap between classical industry‐standard and general‐purpose simulators based on circuital equations, such as SPICE, and dedicated tools for the load flow analysis of power systems. The approach is first demonstrated based on a simple illustrative example, for which the performance in terms of accuracy and efficiency is discussed and then applied to the standard IEEE 33‐node power distribution benchmark.

Munir A. Al-Absi

Munir A. Al-Absi

King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

A novel compact and tunable positive and negative impedance simulator and multiplier

This paper presents a novel CMOS tunable positive and negative active inductor simulator (AIS), positive capacitance and resistance multiplier, and negative capacitance and resistance simulator. The proposed designs use only one analog building block (ABB), one grounded capacitor, and two resistors. Applications to the proposed designs in different types of tunable filters and parasitic compensation schemes are also presented. The functionality of the designs is confirmed using Tanner Tspice in 0.18 μm TSMC CMOS technology. Simulation results indicate that the proposed designs are superior to previous arts in number of ABB, number of functions, and power consumptions.

Smrutilekha Samanta

Smrutilekha Samanta

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Mismatch error compensation of hybrid CS‐DAC to achieve high figure of merit utilizing on‐chip self‐healing assisted swap‐enabled randomization technique

The process and design variations during fabrication generate random mismatch‐induced nonlinearities in Current steering DACs (CS‐DACs), which are the main reason for performance degradation. Considering this, a mismatch error compensation method is highly desirable to boost both static and dynamic performances for the wide‐band CS‐DACs. To address this issue, an on‐chip self‐healing assisted swap‐enabled randomization technique (SASR) is proposed in this work for the Nyquist band CS‐DAC structures. This paper presents a robust hybrid CS‐DAC architecture to enhance both static and dynamic performances. The partial self‐healing method measures and recovers the mismatch current of the current cells. Further, to reduce the mismatch‐based nonlinear distortions, swap‐enabled randomization technique is adopted. This enhances the high‐frequency spurious‐free dynamic range (SFDR …

Ekmel Ozbay

Ekmel Ozbay

Bilkent Üniversitesi

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CIRCUIT THEORY AND APPLICATIONS

Robustness of GaN on SiC low-noise amplifiers in common source and cascode configurations for X-band applications

Cascode HEMTs exhibit high gain and broadband performance. Promising reverse transmission makes matching networks simpler and insensitive to impedance on either side of the HEMT. On the other hand, common source (CS) HEMTs with intentional small inductance at the source provide simultaneous match for optimum noise and input impedance. This paper provides a performance comparison of 4 x 50 mu m cascode HEMTs-based low -noise amplifier and 4 x 50 mu m CS HEMTs-based low -noise amplifiers with specific emphasis on robustness, including survivability and reverse recovery time (RRT). Cascode LNA survives an input power of 33 dBm while CS LNA handles 30 dBm power, each having a 1 k Omega passive limiting resistor on the gate bias line. RRT of cascode LNA is also better. Better survivability and RRT for cascode LNA are attributed to its HEMT's stacked configuration. The designs of …

Sunil Bhat

Sunil Bhat

Visvesvaraya National Institute of Technology

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

An economical and simple strategy for overcoming the Hall sensor faults in three phase brushless DC motor drive

Brushless DC motors (BLDCs) are highly efficient and have the least maintenance requirement due to which they have replaced many conventional AC motors in various applications like electric vehicles, fans, water pumps, and home appliances. However, like all conventional motors, performance degradation of the BLDC motors can occur due to faults like Hall sensors failure, commutation switch failure, and stator‐winding failure. Among all these failures, this paper focuses on Hall sensor failures and the execution of fault tolerant control. Hall sensors produce an output after every 60° of rotation of the rotor, generating six sequences in one electrical cycle. In this study, each sequence is defined as a sector, which corresponds to the rotor position. Based only on this sector information in each electrical cycle, this paper proposes an uncomplicated detection strategy for Hall sensor fault, which is independent of …

Ebrahim Babaei

Ebrahim Babaei

University of Tabriz

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

A new high voltage gain DC‐DC converter based on active switched‐inductor technique

This article proposes a brand‐new high voltage gain step‐up DC‐DC converter through the amalgamation of active switched‐inductors (A‐SL) and a coupled‐inductor (CL) unit. This topology stands out due to its capacity to achieve noteworthy high voltage amplification employing a lesser amount of components when put in contrast to other comparable topologies. The voltage stress across the switches is low, which enables the utilization of low‐voltage rating switches to elevate efficiency. Moreover, the division of the input current between the switches of the converter enables the power dissipation to be diminished. The CL is utilized in a way that if the turn ratio of its windings is lessened, the voltage boost will be augmented. Furthermore, the leakage energy is recycled through the output diode; therefore, problems such as voltage spikes across the switches do not occur. Moreover, the output diode turns off …

Dr. M. Prabhakar

Dr. M. Prabhakar

VIT University

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Dual‐input step‐up switched‐capacitor multilevel inverter with reduced voltage stress on devices

This paper proposes a single‐phase dual‐input step‐up switched‐capacitor multilevel inverter that employs three capacitors, 15 switches, and two diodes to provide 13 voltage levels and triple‐voltage boosting factor in its symmetric form and 37 levels with voltage boosting factor of 3.6 in its asymmetric version. This high boosting factor is accomplished without utilizing any transformer. For each output voltage level, there exists flow paths for both the positive and negative load current directions, which makes the proposed inverter capable of supplying any load type with variety of power factors (zero to unity). The voltage balancing of the capacitors takes place naturally, which tackles the need to auxiliary charge‐balancing circuits or control mechanisms. The proposed inverter can generate negative levels without the end‐side H‐bridge. Moreover, the voltage stress on the semiconductor devices is less than the peak …

Susovon Samanta

Susovon Samanta

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Online state‐of‐charge estimation by modified Coulomb counting method based on the estimated parameters of lithium‐ion battery

The state‐of‐charge (SOC) of the battery is the most critical parameter for an electric vehicle (EV) dashboard. Generally, the Coulomb counting (CC) method is used for SOC estimation, but the conventional CC method has some errors due to initial SOC determination. This work uses battery modeling and parameter estimation of a lithium‐iron‐phosphate (LFP) battery to determine the initial SOC. The equivalent circuit models (ECMs) have been used for battery parameters estimation by the least‐squares estimation (LSE) algorithm. This algorithm uses only experimental terminal voltage and current data from Arbin battery testing system. The ECM parameters vary with battery SOC, and the differential capacity plot has explained the variation. SOC can be estimated using estimated parameters and the relationship between SOC and open‐circuit voltage (OCV). Additionally, a modified CC method is proposed to solve …

Dr Atanu Banerjee

Dr Atanu Banerjee

National Institute of Technology, Meghalaya

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Reliability evaluation of carrier‐based pulse width modulated three‐level F‐type neutral point clamped inverter with power loss analysis

An improved carrier‐based pulse‐width‐modulation (CBPWM) technique for a three‐level (3L) F‐type neutral point‐clamped (FNPC) inverter is presented in this paper. By using the proposed modulation scheme, the DC‐link capacitor voltage at the neutral point is balanced. For manufacturers, reliability is one of the major concerns for all power electronics devices and parts. This paper proposes an extensive reliability analysis of the 3L‐FNPC inverter. Considering the mean time to failure (MTTF) of each device, the reliability of the 3L‐FNPC inverter is analyzed in this present work by using two different methods, which are the approximate method and the exact method. To compute the failure rate of the equipment, only the number of components is considered in the approximate method. Alternatively, exact methods are utilized to evaluate the reliability of a system by knowing the different stress levels and various …

Santanu Sarkar

Santanu Sarkar

National Institute of Technology, Rourkela

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Mismatch error compensation of hybrid CS‐DAC to achieve high figure of merit utilizing on‐chip self‐healing assisted swap‐enabled randomization technique

The process and design variations during fabrication generate random mismatch‐induced nonlinearities in Current steering DACs (CS‐DACs), which are the main reason for performance degradation. Considering this, a mismatch error compensation method is highly desirable to boost both static and dynamic performances for the wide‐band CS‐DACs. To address this issue, an on‐chip self‐healing assisted swap‐enabled randomization technique (SASR) is proposed in this work for the Nyquist band CS‐DAC structures. This paper presents a robust hybrid CS‐DAC architecture to enhance both static and dynamic performances. The partial self‐healing method measures and recovers the mismatch current of the current cells. Further, to reduce the mismatch‐based nonlinear distortions, swap‐enabled randomization technique is adopted. This enhances the high‐frequency spurious‐free dynamic range (SFDR …

Adil Yahdou

Adil Yahdou

Université Hassiba Ben Bouali de Chlef

International Journal of Circuit Theory and Applications

Using neural network super‐twisting sliding mode to improve power control of a dual‐rotor wind turbine system in normal and unbalanced grid fault modes

According to recent research work, increasing electric power generation is one of the significant advantages of the dual‐rotor wind turbine (DRWT) compared to the other types for the same wind speed. In this research work, a modified super‐twisting sliding mode control (STSMC) based on the neural network (NN) is suggested to regulate the stator powers of a DRWT‐based doubly‐fed induction generator (DFIG) in normal and unbalanced grid fault modes. The design of this strategy involves replacing the gains of conventional STSMC with the NN algorithm to enhance robustness, mitigate the impact of unbalanced grid voltage, and consequently improve the quality of the generated power of DRWT‐based DFIG. This forms the primary contribution of this work. The suggested strategy is compared with vector control (VC) and conventional STSMC in terms of reference tracking, power ripples, response dynamics …